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A variable the variability of the labour price makes it become a variable. A component of the wealth of a nation, which is the annual product of the land and labour of a nation. The aim of this paper has been to explore the meanings of the term labour in The Wealth of Nations Indeed, the authors such as Adam Smith, Engels, David Ricardo, Karl Marx and others have exposed in their books different points of view on the concept the term refers to.

According to Engels, man is the product of his labour. Though Marx did not go against this idea, he challenged the idea that labour was simply a value and described the labourer as someone who sells his labour force. These are different views that have enabled us to present an historical overview of the concept. The methodology adopted in this paper is analytical in the sense that every single context in which the term has been used in the book has been analysed and its meaning has been interpreted. As a result, the term labour is polysemous in the book.

It is synonymous with work, labourers, a commodity, the real price of a commodity, a means of purchase, the original purchase money, a human activity, etc. Another important aspect of the paper is the discussion of the notion of concept. The paper has gone beyond the traditional approach to concept, which is mostly structural, and has thrown light on another two conceptual criteria, i.

In The Wealth of Nations , labour has clearly assumed the dimension of a concept. Indeed, it is a complex concept. Other authors and areas of specialisation also use this term and give it a different content. This will be the subject of further studies in forthcoming papers. Aijmer, K. English Corpus Linguistics. Baillargeon R. How do infants learn about the physical world?

In Advances in Psychological Science, Vol. M Sabourin, F Craik, pp. Hove, UK: Psychol. Carey S. Knowledge acquisition: enrichment or conceptual change? S Carey, R Gelman, pp. Douglas L. Medin, Elizabeth B. Lynch, and Karen O. Solomon Engels, F. International Publishers, New York. Gentner D. Some interesting differences between nouns and verbs.

Brain Theory, 4, — Why nouns are learned before verbs: linguistic relativity versus natural partitioning. In Language Development. SA uczaj , pp. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Gentner D, France IM. The verb mutability effect: studies of the combinatorial semantics of nouns and verbs. San Mateo, CA: Kaufmann. Gibbs RW. How language reflects the embodied nature of creative cognition. See Ward et al b, pp. Hanks , P. Stefanowitsch and S. Gries eds. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Keil FC. On the emergence of semantic and conceptual distinctions. Kennedy, G. An Introduction to Corpus Linguistics. Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman Limited. Converging operations on a basic level in event taxonomies. Categorizing objects in isolation and in scenes: what a superordinate is good for.

Prah K. Ricardo D. Folk psychology of mental activities. Smith A. Jonathan Benneth. Origins of knowledge. Components of objects and events. For decades, the problem raised by school failure continues to be a central concern in educational debates. The methodology used for carrying out the research calls for both quantitative and qualitative method paradigms. The elaborated survey questionnaire and interview guide are administered to a sample study population of 6, including male and female respondents.

It also reveals that a good attitude and good classroom practice without any insult and harassment are the keys to success of educational relationship for a good classroom management. Dans quelle mesure les attitudes et prestations des enseignants affectent la performance scolaire des apprenants des cours secondaires de Cotonou? Pour F. Raynal et A. La violence verbale selon R. Elle est une expression synonyme de la violence verbale mais surtout dans la relation enseignant-apprenant en situation de classe.

Les violences verbales sont sources de pratiques verbales. Nomaye et D. Selon H. Kennedy et C. Davis, Alors, les enseignants doivent tenir compte des facteurs internes de leurs apprenants dans leurs prestations verbales. Galland et P. Fredriksen et J. Galland etP. Fredriksenet J. Il faut des menaces pour redresser nos apprenants. Ceci corrobore les travaux de A. Andenas et K. Ceci contredit selon J. Bayali, B. Burkina Faso. Belema, K. Bowen, N. The effects of home microsystem risk factors and school microsystem protective factors on student academic performance and affective investment in schooling.

Social Work in Education. Brewster, A. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal. Cossette, M-C. Marcotte, D. Dassoundo, R. Davis, H. Educational Psychologist. Elobo, P. Fortin, L. Marie-France Bradley. European Journal of Psychology of Education. Fraser, B. Research on teacher-student relationships and learning environments : Context, retrospect and prospect. International Journal of Educational Research. Fredriksen, K. The role of teacher relationships in the lives of students. New directions for youth development. Houannou, A. Hounkpatin J. Kennedy, J. Attachment Theory: Implications for school psychology.

Psychology in the Schools. Le Bortef, G. Lessard, A. Shades of disengagement: High school dropouts speak out. Social Psychology of Education. An International Journal. Meirieu, Ph.

Colloque IMPEC 2016 : Marie-Anne Paveau (Université Paris 13)

Ndagijimana, J-B. Motivation et apprentissage scolaire. Paille, P. Paris, Armand Colin. Perrenoud, Ph. Repris dans Perrenoud, Ph. Sava, F. Causes and effects of teacher conflict-inducing attitudes towards pupils: a path analysis model. Teaching and Teacher Education. Soglohoun, N. Sokou, V. Zotin, L. The methodology guiding the research is induced by the study typology. It considers a sampled population of seventy- seven 77 respondents made up of male and female teachers of English.

The data collection tools adopted to operationalize the research are questionnaire and interview guide. Data emanating from the questionnaire harvest are disaggregated along the frequency and percentage lines. As for the interview data they are analyzed against the backdrop of the research questions. The findings of the study reveal four interactions types among EFL teachers. Those are mainly collaboration, individualism, contrived collegiality and balkanization.

Therefore, it is important that educational authorities promote social interactions among teachers in order to enhance effective teaching and learning of English language. In the school system, teachers always interface between curricular documents and classroom practices. Thus, teachers translate curriculum decisions and plans as outlined in the curriculum document into practical activities to bring about desired changes in students Elmore, In an attempt to implement curricular policies, teachers mediate formal curriculum principles by adjusting curriculum directives in ways that they believe would benefit students.

For instance, in most cases, teachers re-conceptualize the content and organization of curriculum document, the methodologies of implementing curriculum policies and the stipulated assessment techniques to reflect the contemporary needs of students. Wang affirms that teachers are not simply implementers of policies that are handed down to them but they interpret, modify and edit the formal curriculum prior to implementation. Further, it has been established that how EFL teachers individually and collectively perceive and enact the curriculum document is conditioned by the practices existing in the subject professional development meetings, a claim McLaughlin had earlier made.

He indicated that the subject professional development meetings have the potential to impact on what is taught how it is taught and assessed. This study would like to explore the social interaction among teachers of English and its impacts on curriculum enactment in Benin Republic. Its aim is to undertake investigations that might shed light on this state of affairs in the educational sphere. The theoretical framework used for the study is the social network. The social network theory is a theoretical concept that is concerned with the relationships between individuals, groups, institutions, or even entire societies.

As Scott notes, the social network theory comprises two or more individuals that are bound together by a common objective. In the context of this study, the group is EFL teachers teaching in the same secondary school. The objective of professional development meetings is to plan and implement the curriculum at that level of schooling. The objective may constitute one or more relations such as seeking advice from colleagues to prepare lessons, work together to prepare schemes of work, depend on others for the teaching of certain topics, among others.

This theoretical approach is necessarily relational. The objective among the individuals during professional development meetings has important behavioural, perceptual, and attitudinal consequences for both the individual units and for the system as a whole Knoke et al. Thus, the theory provides mechanisms and processes that interact to yield certain outcomes for the individuals as a unit.

Individual benefits could be in the area of professional growth as a teacher, ability to improve planning and teaching as well as an effective teacher identity. For the unit, there could be an appropriate image building, an improvement in the teaching and learning of the English language, and also a healthy social engagement in the meetings. These benefits reflect mutual interest and collective action. Its main premise is that shared interests and the likelihood of benefits from coordinated action often outweigh individual self-interests. The intent of the social interaction and collective action of EFL teachers suggest that the outcome of the social interaction would maximize the exchange value between individual teachers.

The motivation to forge ties and interact is to further maximize their collective ability to leverage instructional practices and mobilize for collective action. Such collective action is made possible because the teachers, each with their own set of skills, knowledge and expertise, develop communication networks that help them identify and leverage the skills and expertise of others.

For Taylor , there are two types of teacher interactions: interpersonal interactions and intrapersonal interactions. These include fragmented individualism, collaboration, contrived collegiality and balkanization. Such interaction was also characterized by help-giving, emotional support and collectiveness. Lieberman also reveals the existence of collaborative interaction among teachers. This interaction among teachers was administratively regulated, rather than development-oriented; and meant to be predictable rather than unpredictable in its outcome.

As administrative requirement, novice teachers in the schools were expected to consult the most experienced teachers when taking critical decisions related to lesson planning. Teachers in such schools were required to work together to improve practice. Wang reports that teachers participated in smaller sub- group interactions within the school community. The first faction represented those who were receptive to changes. These teachers were likely to plan their lessons to meet the broad spectrum of learning styles and needs that learners come to class with Oppong, The other faction of teachers was apparently isolated-oriented.

They were conservative and kept themselves away from the imposed innovations. These teachers may be susceptible to new ways of planning instructional practices. In the end, modern approaches to instructional planning may not be adhered to. This collaboration among teachers is likely to improve instructional practices of teachers. The findings of the study demonstrate that teachers shared and developed their expertise through the round table interaction.

Apart from these, it could be deduced from the literature that teachers engage in sub-group interactions. The study also shows that collegiality influenced the motivation and career commitment of teachers to the extent to which they were willing to modify the methodologies and teaching and learning resources that were selected in the lesson preparation. Cohen and Hill conclude that teachers gained experience from their participation in content-focused interactions with their colleagues.

‘No One Is Forgotten, Nothing Is Forgotten’

This observation emphasizes the belief that, how teachers interpret and further enact the curriculum would be somewhat dictated by effective collegiality. It is, therefore, useful to note that the implementation of the formal curriculum in any classroom situation may allow the discussion of teaching methods, instructional resources and other issues by teachers Sosu, The study confirms that constructive feedback from colleagues enabled teachers to get a holistic understanding of a planned curriculum document.

It was reported in the study that teachers became confused on what method was deemed appropriate, the best teaching and learning aids to use and the best way to meet the diverse needs of students. Similar observations have been reported by Leonard and Johnson The outcomes of these studies suggest that interaction among teachers for purposes of curriculum enactment could be negative oriented. The literature, therefore, is not conclusive on the issue.

That is, the literature seems to be a mix-bag. The social interaction among EFL teachers during professional development meetings may help confirm or refute the claims in the literature. Perhaps, as noted in the focus of the study the current study may help shed more light on the state of affairs. The current study examined how the social interactions that exist among EFL teachers influence syllabus enactment before classroom implementation in Benin. Given that no such study has been conducted in Benin, the different socio-cultural settings may lead to variation in the findings in previous studies.

This provides the reason to focus this research in a Beninese context. The current study seeks to examine social interactions among teachers of English and their impacts on Instructional Practices in some secondary schools in Benin Republic. The following research questions have thus been raised:. The concurrent research design was used for this study. The design was deemed appropriate for this study because it allows the collection of different but complementary data on the same topic on one field visit Morse, The sample for the study was made up of seventy-seven 77 purposively selected EFL teachers from public and private secondary schools in Littoral region in Benin.

Questionnaire and interview guide were used to collect the relevant data. The questionnaire data were put into frequencies and percentages with the use of SPSS. Interviews were audio-recorded from 18 teachers and transcribed verbatim. To create manageable units for analysis, transcripts were divided into two area units related to the research questions.

An inductive approach to develop codes was employed. Broad categories were developed based on the information gathered in response to the questions posed. These categories responses were repeatedly refined, augmented, eliminated, and further refined until the final narratives emerged. The first objective was to find out the kind of interactions EFL teachers engage in their departments.

The quantitative result is presented in Table 1. The results in Table 1 indicate that the majority 16, Again, few 3, Very few 4, Lastly, on the statement that teachers did not discuss their academic work with their colleagues, six The data point to the fact that, in general, even though some EFL teachers did not collaborate in their department, a considerable portion of teachers engaged their colleagues for academic work.

The results, therefore, suggest that some EFL teachers, at least shared ideas. Findings from the interview revealed that respondents had varying views on the kind of interaction s existing during meetings. For example, some of the respondents admitted that they engaged in collegial exchanges which may or may not be regulated.

Two quotes illustrate this:. The first comment shows that EFL teachers engage in collegial exchanges and joint planning of activities. The respondents gave responses like:. The existence of sub-group interaction among EFL teachers indicates that teachers experienced collegial engagement differently. It appears that collegial collaboration is common in most secondary schools.

This is noteworthy because the teachers displayed a general lack of knowledge about individualism during professional development meetings. From the responses to the questionnaire, one can reasonably assume that EFL teachers engage in mandated interactions, collegial collaboration, and individualism and sub- group interactions. But the interview data, to some extent, contradict this assumption. While the questionnaire data revealed that some teachers plan their academic work in solitude, during the interview, all the teachers demonstrated a general lack of awareness of individualism.

Given the lack of corroboration between the questionnaire and interview data, it maybe that the wording of the questionnaire made it easy for teachers to select any response. But after much probing in the interview, these teachers were unable to adequately account for their engagement in the perceived interactions. Notwithstanding the differences in the findings, the collaborative culture finds support in the perspective of Dillenbourg that in supportive and trusting collaborative environment, it is difficult to recognize any form of isolation.

Again, if, in reality, only few teachers engage in sub-group interactions as the findings suggests, it can be assumed that differing ideological demarcations or group compositions do not exist in most professional development meetings. Indeed, in adaptable and successful schools, interactions about teaching tend to be inclusive and homogenous Cole, The teachers may perhaps collaborate not only to improve teacher performance, but to also improve student performance.

The engagement will put the EFL teachers on the same page in terms of planning and delivery of instruction. That practice will motivate teachers to engage in positive interactions with their colleagues. These benefits of collaboration among teachers confirm Ronfeldt, et al. It should also be noted that interaction is not always a concept that is welcomed with open arms as the questionnaire data revealed.

The data suggested the existence of individualism though, as noted, the interview data did not confirm. Albeit the lack of confirmation, some teachers who have had success working in isolation may view collaboration as an invasion of their pedagogy and a waste of time. Such teachers are likely to be accustomed to their individualism regardless of the benefits of collegial interaction. The study further sought to find out how social interaction among EFL teachers influenced instructional practices. The responses of teachers are shown in Table 2.

Social interactions help me plan my lessons to reflect current trends in the teaching industry 13 Interactions with my colleagues enable me plan lessons in more practical manner 14 Social interactions enhance my knowledge in instructional strategies 17 The majority of the respondents in Table 2 agreed that social interactions influenced how they enact the curriculum. For instance, 17 Another 17 This implies that the social interaction among EFL teachers enhance their lesson preparation.

From the interviews, it was noted, generally, that the social interaction among EFL teachers had an influence on the planning of their lessons. The respondents provided comments that social interaction in the departments afforded them a better orientation on the nature, and the purposes of the subject. One of the responses reflects this position:. This means that respondents acknowledged that interactions enhance their subject matter knowledge.

Besides the content issues, the interviewees indicated that social interactions influenced their selection of, for example, appropriate assessment instruments, relevant instructional materials, and student-centered strategies and methodologies. One teacher puts it as:. For instance, the comments that:. The two data sources, the questionnaire and interview data, converge on the same point. Given this level of corroboration, it appears that EFL teachers are inclined to pedagogical influence through social interactions. As noted in the theory, social interaction and collective action of EFL teachers suggested that, the outcome of the social interaction would maximize the exchange value between individual teachers.

It could, therefore, be argued that for EFL teachers to achieve the laudable objectives of the subject, and improve on instructional planning and delivery, their interactions in the area are critical. Perhaps, positive interaction with their colleagues will enable them exploit the usefulness, essence and benefits of each topic in the syllabus.

This argument finds support in the words of Miller The author notes that social interactions influence teachers to an extent that they are able to understand the purposes of their educational practices. Several studies e. Social interaction among EFL teachers is, therefore, beneficial for curricular discourse.

Others have also argued on the limitation of social interaction in schools. These arguments seek to advance the course of individualism over the social network theory. One common criticism of social network theory is that individualism is often ignored although this may not be the case in practice Wenlin et al. The lack of initiative and creativity may be perhaps associated with introvert teachers, because any discussions among teachers should enable individuals share their innovations and not otherwise. However, the elements of initiative and creativity could possibly be stifled when the interaction among teachers is not receptive.

One mechanism that can hinder initiative and creativity of individuals is reciprocal altruism Trivers, Conventional knowledge suggests that a group should have important effects on the development of cooperation by mutual altruism. Regardless of the fillip side of social interaction in any association, it is evident in this study that interaction among EFL teachers influence curriculum enactment practices for the benefits of the teachers. The current study therefore re-echoes the quintessential nature of social interaction in curriculum enactment.

The findings provide a firm confirmation of the literature that suggests that social interaction is important for curriculum enactment discourse. Perhaps the socio-cultural settings of the current study and those previous studies bear semblance. This study set to examine social interactions among teachers of English and their impacts on Instructional Practices in some secondary schools in Benin Republic.

It has been established that various interactions exist among EFL teachers in the various secondary schools where the study was conducted. These include mandated interactions, collegial collaboration, and individualism and sub-group interactions. The existence of these forms of interactions indicates that curriculum enactment may not take place in a vacuum. The study further recognized that the social interaction among EFL teachers influenced curriculum enactment practices at that level of schooling. It is, therefore, important for instructional leaders to ensure that those engagements among teachers continue to be appropriate to enhance the effective teaching and learning of the English language.

Cohen, D. Instructional policy and classroom performance: The mathematics reform in California. Cole, A. Relationships in the workplace: Doing what comes naturally? De Lima, J. Colleagues and friends: professional and personal relationship among teachers in two Portuguese secondary schools. Elmore, R. Backward mapping. Implementation research and policy decisions. Political Science Quarterly, 94 4 , Giacquinta, J. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Hargreaves, A.

Cultures of teaching: a focus for change. Fullan Eds. New York: Teacher College Press. London: Cassell. Harris, A. Effective leadership and departmental improvement. Westminster Studies in Education, 23, Jacobs, M. Sandown, South Africa: Heinemann. Jarzabkowski, L. Teacher collegiality in a remote Australian school. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 18 3 , Johnson, B. Teacher collaboration: Good for some not so good for others. In Education Studies, 99 , Reculturing for collaboration and leadership. Journal of Education Research , 92, Katz, N. Network theory and small groups.

Small Group Research , 35 3 , Marsh, C. Curriculum: Alternative approaches, ongoing issues. Marwell, G. The critical mass in collective action: A micro-social theory. McLaughlin, M. Professional communities and the work of high school teaching. Nias, J. Why teachers need their colleagues: A developmental perspective. International Handbook of Educational Change. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Pennel, J. Changing classroom practices through teacher networks: matching program features with teacher characteristics and circumstances.

Teacher College Record, 98 , Ronfeldt, M. Teacher collaboration in instructional teams and student achievement. American Educational Research Journal , 52 3 , Retallic, J. M Sabourin, F Craik, pp. Hove, UK: Psychol. Carey S. Knowledge acquisition: enrichment or conceptual change? S Carey, R Gelman, pp. Douglas L. Medin, Elizabeth B. Lynch, and Karen O. Solomon Engels, F. International Publishers, New York. Gentner D. Some interesting differences between nouns and verbs.

Brain Theory, 4, — Why nouns are learned before verbs: linguistic relativity versus natural partitioning. In Language Development. SA uczaj , pp. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Gentner D, France IM. The verb mutability effect: studies of the combinatorial semantics of nouns and verbs. San Mateo, CA: Kaufmann. Gibbs RW. How language reflects the embodied nature of creative cognition. See Ward et al b, pp. Hanks , P. Stefanowitsch and S. Gries eds. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Keil FC. On the emergence of semantic and conceptual distinctions. Kennedy, G. An Introduction to Corpus Linguistics.

Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman Limited. Converging operations on a basic level in event taxonomies. Categorizing objects in isolation and in scenes: what a superordinate is good for. Prah K. Ricardo D. Folk psychology of mental activities. Smith A. Jonathan Benneth. Origins of knowledge. Components of objects and events.

For decades, the problem raised by school failure continues to be a central concern in educational debates. The methodology used for carrying out the research calls for both quantitative and qualitative method paradigms. The elaborated survey questionnaire and interview guide are administered to a sample study population of 6, including male and female respondents.

It also reveals that a good attitude and good classroom practice without any insult and harassment are the keys to success of educational relationship for a good classroom management. Dans quelle mesure les attitudes et prestations des enseignants affectent la performance scolaire des apprenants des cours secondaires de Cotonou?

Pour F. Raynal et A. La violence verbale selon R. Elle est une expression synonyme de la violence verbale mais surtout dans la relation enseignant-apprenant en situation de classe. Les violences verbales sont sources de pratiques verbales. Nomaye et D. Selon H. Kennedy et C. Davis, Alors, les enseignants doivent tenir compte des facteurs internes de leurs apprenants dans leurs prestations verbales. Galland et P. Fredriksen et J. Galland etP. Fredriksenet J. Il faut des menaces pour redresser nos apprenants. Ceci corrobore les travaux de A.

Andenas et K. Ceci contredit selon J. Bayali, B. Burkina Faso. Belema, K. Bowen, N. The effects of home microsystem risk factors and school microsystem protective factors on student academic performance and affective investment in schooling. Social Work in Education. Brewster, A. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal. Cossette, M-C. Marcotte, D. Dassoundo, R. Davis, H. Educational Psychologist. Elobo, P. Fortin, L. Marie-France Bradley. European Journal of Psychology of Education. Fraser, B. Research on teacher-student relationships and learning environments : Context, retrospect and prospect.

International Journal of Educational Research. Fredriksen, K. The role of teacher relationships in the lives of students. New directions for youth development. Houannou, A. Hounkpatin J. Kennedy, J. Attachment Theory: Implications for school psychology. Psychology in the Schools. Le Bortef, G. Lessard, A. Shades of disengagement: High school dropouts speak out. Social Psychology of Education. An International Journal.

Meirieu, Ph. Ndagijimana, J-B. Motivation et apprentissage scolaire. Paille, P. Paris, Armand Colin. Perrenoud, Ph. Repris dans Perrenoud, Ph. Sava, F. Causes and effects of teacher conflict-inducing attitudes towards pupils: a path analysis model. Teaching and Teacher Education. Soglohoun, N.

Sokou, V. Zotin, L. The methodology guiding the research is induced by the study typology. It considers a sampled population of seventy- seven 77 respondents made up of male and female teachers of English. The data collection tools adopted to operationalize the research are questionnaire and interview guide.

Data emanating from the questionnaire harvest are disaggregated along the frequency and percentage lines.

As for the interview data they are analyzed against the backdrop of the research questions. The findings of the study reveal four interactions types among EFL teachers. Those are mainly collaboration, individualism, contrived collegiality and balkanization. Therefore, it is important that educational authorities promote social interactions among teachers in order to enhance effective teaching and learning of English language. In the school system, teachers always interface between curricular documents and classroom practices.

Thus, teachers translate curriculum decisions and plans as outlined in the curriculum document into practical activities to bring about desired changes in students Elmore, In an attempt to implement curricular policies, teachers mediate formal curriculum principles by adjusting curriculum directives in ways that they believe would benefit students.

For instance, in most cases, teachers re-conceptualize the content and organization of curriculum document, the methodologies of implementing curriculum policies and the stipulated assessment techniques to reflect the contemporary needs of students. Wang affirms that teachers are not simply implementers of policies that are handed down to them but they interpret, modify and edit the formal curriculum prior to implementation.

Further, it has been established that how EFL teachers individually and collectively perceive and enact the curriculum document is conditioned by the practices existing in the subject professional development meetings, a claim McLaughlin had earlier made.

LIVING BOOKS ABOUT HISTORY

He indicated that the subject professional development meetings have the potential to impact on what is taught how it is taught and assessed. This study would like to explore the social interaction among teachers of English and its impacts on curriculum enactment in Benin Republic. Its aim is to undertake investigations that might shed light on this state of affairs in the educational sphere. The theoretical framework used for the study is the social network. The social network theory is a theoretical concept that is concerned with the relationships between individuals, groups, institutions, or even entire societies.

As Scott notes, the social network theory comprises two or more individuals that are bound together by a common objective. In the context of this study, the group is EFL teachers teaching in the same secondary school. The objective of professional development meetings is to plan and implement the curriculum at that level of schooling.

The objective may constitute one or more relations such as seeking advice from colleagues to prepare lessons, work together to prepare schemes of work, depend on others for the teaching of certain topics, among others. This theoretical approach is necessarily relational. The objective among the individuals during professional development meetings has important behavioural, perceptual, and attitudinal consequences for both the individual units and for the system as a whole Knoke et al. Thus, the theory provides mechanisms and processes that interact to yield certain outcomes for the individuals as a unit.

Individual benefits could be in the area of professional growth as a teacher, ability to improve planning and teaching as well as an effective teacher identity. For the unit, there could be an appropriate image building, an improvement in the teaching and learning of the English language, and also a healthy social engagement in the meetings. These benefits reflect mutual interest and collective action. Its main premise is that shared interests and the likelihood of benefits from coordinated action often outweigh individual self-interests. The intent of the social interaction and collective action of EFL teachers suggest that the outcome of the social interaction would maximize the exchange value between individual teachers.

The motivation to forge ties and interact is to further maximize their collective ability to leverage instructional practices and mobilize for collective action. Such collective action is made possible because the teachers, each with their own set of skills, knowledge and expertise, develop communication networks that help them identify and leverage the skills and expertise of others. For Taylor , there are two types of teacher interactions: interpersonal interactions and intrapersonal interactions.

These include fragmented individualism, collaboration, contrived collegiality and balkanization. Such interaction was also characterized by help-giving, emotional support and collectiveness. Lieberman also reveals the existence of collaborative interaction among teachers. This interaction among teachers was administratively regulated, rather than development-oriented; and meant to be predictable rather than unpredictable in its outcome.

As administrative requirement, novice teachers in the schools were expected to consult the most experienced teachers when taking critical decisions related to lesson planning. Teachers in such schools were required to work together to improve practice. Wang reports that teachers participated in smaller sub- group interactions within the school community. The first faction represented those who were receptive to changes. These teachers were likely to plan their lessons to meet the broad spectrum of learning styles and needs that learners come to class with Oppong, The other faction of teachers was apparently isolated-oriented.

They were conservative and kept themselves away from the imposed innovations. These teachers may be susceptible to new ways of planning instructional practices. In the end, modern approaches to instructional planning may not be adhered to.

The Literary and the Social

This collaboration among teachers is likely to improve instructional practices of teachers. The findings of the study demonstrate that teachers shared and developed their expertise through the round table interaction. Apart from these, it could be deduced from the literature that teachers engage in sub-group interactions. The study also shows that collegiality influenced the motivation and career commitment of teachers to the extent to which they were willing to modify the methodologies and teaching and learning resources that were selected in the lesson preparation.

Cohen and Hill conclude that teachers gained experience from their participation in content-focused interactions with their colleagues. This observation emphasizes the belief that, how teachers interpret and further enact the curriculum would be somewhat dictated by effective collegiality. It is, therefore, useful to note that the implementation of the formal curriculum in any classroom situation may allow the discussion of teaching methods, instructional resources and other issues by teachers Sosu, The study confirms that constructive feedback from colleagues enabled teachers to get a holistic understanding of a planned curriculum document.

It was reported in the study that teachers became confused on what method was deemed appropriate, the best teaching and learning aids to use and the best way to meet the diverse needs of students. Similar observations have been reported by Leonard and Johnson The outcomes of these studies suggest that interaction among teachers for purposes of curriculum enactment could be negative oriented. The literature, therefore, is not conclusive on the issue. That is, the literature seems to be a mix-bag.

The social interaction among EFL teachers during professional development meetings may help confirm or refute the claims in the literature. Perhaps, as noted in the focus of the study the current study may help shed more light on the state of affairs. The current study examined how the social interactions that exist among EFL teachers influence syllabus enactment before classroom implementation in Benin. Given that no such study has been conducted in Benin, the different socio-cultural settings may lead to variation in the findings in previous studies. This provides the reason to focus this research in a Beninese context.

The current study seeks to examine social interactions among teachers of English and their impacts on Instructional Practices in some secondary schools in Benin Republic. The following research questions have thus been raised:. The concurrent research design was used for this study. The design was deemed appropriate for this study because it allows the collection of different but complementary data on the same topic on one field visit Morse, The sample for the study was made up of seventy-seven 77 purposively selected EFL teachers from public and private secondary schools in Littoral region in Benin.

Questionnaire and interview guide were used to collect the relevant data. The questionnaire data were put into frequencies and percentages with the use of SPSS. Interviews were audio-recorded from 18 teachers and transcribed verbatim. To create manageable units for analysis, transcripts were divided into two area units related to the research questions. An inductive approach to develop codes was employed. Broad categories were developed based on the information gathered in response to the questions posed. These categories responses were repeatedly refined, augmented, eliminated, and further refined until the final narratives emerged.

The first objective was to find out the kind of interactions EFL teachers engage in their departments. The quantitative result is presented in Table 1. The results in Table 1 indicate that the majority 16, Again, few 3, Very few 4, Lastly, on the statement that teachers did not discuss their academic work with their colleagues, six The data point to the fact that, in general, even though some EFL teachers did not collaborate in their department, a considerable portion of teachers engaged their colleagues for academic work. The results, therefore, suggest that some EFL teachers, at least shared ideas.

Findings from the interview revealed that respondents had varying views on the kind of interaction s existing during meetings. For example, some of the respondents admitted that they engaged in collegial exchanges which may or may not be regulated. Two quotes illustrate this:. The first comment shows that EFL teachers engage in collegial exchanges and joint planning of activities. The respondents gave responses like:. The existence of sub-group interaction among EFL teachers indicates that teachers experienced collegial engagement differently.

It appears that collegial collaboration is common in most secondary schools. This is noteworthy because the teachers displayed a general lack of knowledge about individualism during professional development meetings. From the responses to the questionnaire, one can reasonably assume that EFL teachers engage in mandated interactions, collegial collaboration, and individualism and sub- group interactions.

But the interview data, to some extent, contradict this assumption.


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While the questionnaire data revealed that some teachers plan their academic work in solitude, during the interview, all the teachers demonstrated a general lack of awareness of individualism. Given the lack of corroboration between the questionnaire and interview data, it maybe that the wording of the questionnaire made it easy for teachers to select any response. But after much probing in the interview, these teachers were unable to adequately account for their engagement in the perceived interactions.

Notwithstanding the differences in the findings, the collaborative culture finds support in the perspective of Dillenbourg that in supportive and trusting collaborative environment, it is difficult to recognize any form of isolation. Again, if, in reality, only few teachers engage in sub-group interactions as the findings suggests, it can be assumed that differing ideological demarcations or group compositions do not exist in most professional development meetings. Indeed, in adaptable and successful schools, interactions about teaching tend to be inclusive and homogenous Cole, The teachers may perhaps collaborate not only to improve teacher performance, but to also improve student performance.

The engagement will put the EFL teachers on the same page in terms of planning and delivery of instruction. That practice will motivate teachers to engage in positive interactions with their colleagues. These benefits of collaboration among teachers confirm Ronfeldt, et al. It should also be noted that interaction is not always a concept that is welcomed with open arms as the questionnaire data revealed.

The data suggested the existence of individualism though, as noted, the interview data did not confirm. Albeit the lack of confirmation, some teachers who have had success working in isolation may view collaboration as an invasion of their pedagogy and a waste of time. Such teachers are likely to be accustomed to their individualism regardless of the benefits of collegial interaction. The study further sought to find out how social interaction among EFL teachers influenced instructional practices. The responses of teachers are shown in Table 2. Social interactions help me plan my lessons to reflect current trends in the teaching industry 13 Interactions with my colleagues enable me plan lessons in more practical manner 14 Social interactions enhance my knowledge in instructional strategies 17 The majority of the respondents in Table 2 agreed that social interactions influenced how they enact the curriculum.

For instance, 17 Another 17 This implies that the social interaction among EFL teachers enhance their lesson preparation. From the interviews, it was noted, generally, that the social interaction among EFL teachers had an influence on the planning of their lessons. The respondents provided comments that social interaction in the departments afforded them a better orientation on the nature, and the purposes of the subject. One of the responses reflects this position:. This means that respondents acknowledged that interactions enhance their subject matter knowledge. Besides the content issues, the interviewees indicated that social interactions influenced their selection of, for example, appropriate assessment instruments, relevant instructional materials, and student-centered strategies and methodologies.

One teacher puts it as:. For instance, the comments that:. The two data sources, the questionnaire and interview data, converge on the same point. Given this level of corroboration, it appears that EFL teachers are inclined to pedagogical influence through social interactions. As noted in the theory, social interaction and collective action of EFL teachers suggested that, the outcome of the social interaction would maximize the exchange value between individual teachers.

It could, therefore, be argued that for EFL teachers to achieve the laudable objectives of the subject, and improve on instructional planning and delivery, their interactions in the area are critical. Perhaps, positive interaction with their colleagues will enable them exploit the usefulness, essence and benefits of each topic in the syllabus. This argument finds support in the words of Miller The author notes that social interactions influence teachers to an extent that they are able to understand the purposes of their educational practices. Several studies e. Social interaction among EFL teachers is, therefore, beneficial for curricular discourse.

Others have also argued on the limitation of social interaction in schools. These arguments seek to advance the course of individualism over the social network theory. One common criticism of social network theory is that individualism is often ignored although this may not be the case in practice Wenlin et al.

The lack of initiative and creativity may be perhaps associated with introvert teachers, because any discussions among teachers should enable individuals share their innovations and not otherwise. However, the elements of initiative and creativity could possibly be stifled when the interaction among teachers is not receptive. One mechanism that can hinder initiative and creativity of individuals is reciprocal altruism Trivers, Conventional knowledge suggests that a group should have important effects on the development of cooperation by mutual altruism.

Regardless of the fillip side of social interaction in any association, it is evident in this study that interaction among EFL teachers influence curriculum enactment practices for the benefits of the teachers. The current study therefore re-echoes the quintessential nature of social interaction in curriculum enactment. The findings provide a firm confirmation of the literature that suggests that social interaction is important for curriculum enactment discourse. Perhaps the socio-cultural settings of the current study and those previous studies bear semblance.

This study set to examine social interactions among teachers of English and their impacts on Instructional Practices in some secondary schools in Benin Republic. It has been established that various interactions exist among EFL teachers in the various secondary schools where the study was conducted. These include mandated interactions, collegial collaboration, and individualism and sub-group interactions.

The existence of these forms of interactions indicates that curriculum enactment may not take place in a vacuum. The study further recognized that the social interaction among EFL teachers influenced curriculum enactment practices at that level of schooling. It is, therefore, important for instructional leaders to ensure that those engagements among teachers continue to be appropriate to enhance the effective teaching and learning of the English language.

Cohen, D. Instructional policy and classroom performance: The mathematics reform in California. Cole, A. Relationships in the workplace: Doing what comes naturally? De Lima, J. Colleagues and friends: professional and personal relationship among teachers in two Portuguese secondary schools. Elmore, R. Backward mapping. Implementation research and policy decisions.

Political Science Quarterly, 94 4 , Giacquinta, J. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Hargreaves, A. Cultures of teaching: a focus for change. Fullan Eds. New York: Teacher College Press. London: Cassell. Harris, A. Effective leadership and departmental improvement. Westminster Studies in Education, 23, Jacobs, M. Sandown, South Africa: Heinemann. Jarzabkowski, L. Teacher collegiality in a remote Australian school. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 18 3 , Johnson, B. Teacher collaboration: Good for some not so good for others. In Education Studies, 99 , Reculturing for collaboration and leadership.

Journal of Education Research , 92, Katz, N. Network theory and small groups. Small Group Research , 35 3 , Marsh, C. Curriculum: Alternative approaches, ongoing issues. Marwell, G. The critical mass in collective action: A micro-social theory. McLaughlin, M. Professional communities and the work of high school teaching. Nias, J. Why teachers need their colleagues: A developmental perspective. International Handbook of Educational Change. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Pennel, J.

Changing classroom practices through teacher networks: matching program features with teacher characteristics and circumstances. Teacher College Record, 98 , Ronfeldt, M. Teacher collaboration in instructional teams and student achievement. American Educational Research Journal , 52 3 , Retallic, J. Professional well-being and learning: A study of teacher-peer workplace relationships.

Journal of Educational Enquiry, 5 1 , Reynolds, R. A model for researching syllabus development and curriculum change. Rizvi, E. Rosenholtz, S, J. Workplace condition that affect teacher quality and commitment: implications for teacher induction programs. Sato, V. Beliefs, practices and interactions of teachers in a Japanese high school English department.

Teaching and Teacher Education20 , Shah, M. The importance and benefits of teacher collegiality in school- a literature review. Social and Behaviour Sciences, 46, Siskin, L. Realms of knowledge: Academic departments in secondary schools. London: Falmer Press. Sosu, E. Vukelich, C. What do we think we know? Childhood Education, 75 3 , pp. Wenlin, L. Stress management As for stress management, the first survey conducted in Figure 1 showed a significant difference between T and I in this respect, the latter reporting on a more important improvement. The survey Figure 2 and the average values of the two surveys Figure 3 did however show an even distribution of the values.

This may seem surprising since one would expect a much higher and consistent difference between the two professions: interpreting has traditionally been considered and acknowledged to be an extremely stressful profession. Thus the improvement of stress management skills has been one of the recurrent issues in the field of interpreter training.

This finding reflects what seems to be increasingly characteristic of the translation market and the professional life of translators. It is becoming more and more stressful due to several factors: tight and changing deadlines; increasing quality requirements; new technological tools, to name but a few. Therefore, translator training is more and more geared toward stress management and models the processes and roles on the market. This must have been the factor behind translation students reporting on a more significant improvement in their stress management skills than expected.

Entrepreneurial spirit and competitiveness Entrepreneurial spirit and competitiveness are closely linked. The present study revealed that these are the two aspects with the lowest average values Figure 3. The explanation for this may be found in the fact that although modern TIT endeavors to reproduce real life situations by integrating elements into classroom practice and the curriculum reflecting the world outside the classroom, it is hard to hone these skills in formal training situations because the classroom, peers and trainers provide a certain sense of security and insulation from the real world.

It is especially true if we bear in mind that the fact that one of the guiding principles of our training is cooperation and teamwork. Although it was limited in scope, focusing only on one school, it did reveal that such training had an added value or rather several added values. Furthermore, the training characterized by action learning that they receive enables them to develop others, less directly linked to translation and interpreting.

It can also be seen from the discussion above that the main elements of the training and the various skills together with their development are strongly interrelated. In other words, they are built upon and mutually reinforce one another. The present study provides only an overview, a lot more needs to be investigated to better understand this issue. The present survey can serve as a starting point for further replication surveys. It would be interesting to broaden the number of schools and respondents by giving it an international character, at the same time preserving sensitivity to context.

It would also be interesting to combine the findings of the present study with an inquiry into motivational issues of students wanting to become translators and interpreter. Translation and interpreting students could also be examined separately and in more detail in a future in-depth study of the same topic. Another valid avenue for further research would be involving trainers, or examining fewer skills but in more detail through e.

Bibliography Adams, C. September Visited on 20 February Alcaraz, E. Al-Kufaishi, A. Balliu, C. Campbell, S. Chabasse, C. Clifford, A. Dollerup, C. Ficchi, V. Gile, D. Gillies, A. Gran, L. Hale, S. Hansen, I. Hardane, J. Anderson, M. Hobbs, J. Jones-Parry, S. Logan, S. Lotovale eds Supporting independent learning in the 21st century. Auckland: Independent Learning Association Oceania. Conference Proceedings. Vienna, Praesens Verlag. Hung, E. Idh, L. Dimitrova, A. Ilg, G. Jammal, A. Kearns, J, ed Translator and Interpreter Training.

Kelly, D. Jerome Publishing. Kiraly, D. Ko, L. Kurz, I. Kussmaul, P. Lang, M. Snell-Hornby, F. Kaindl eds Translation Studies. Lambert, S. Lee, J. Lee-Yahnke, H. Lei, M. Li, D. Lung, R. Masschelein, D. Massy, G. Mossop, B. Napier, J. Newmark, P. Nord, C. Olvera-Lobo, M. Orozco, M. Pym, A. Reports on online symposia, Tarragona, Universitat Rovira i Virgili. Robinson, D. Russo, M. Seleskovitch, D. Shaw, S. Tao, Y. Valentine, E. Translation and teaching, in Meta 48 3. Her PhD in Applied Linguistics dealt with the role of autonomous learning in interpreter training. She is an active freelance conference interpreter.

Other remarks: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………… Today's societies are in a continuous change, moving from monocultural to multicultural societies. As a consequence, a series of changes and adaptations are needed. Building bridges is not always enough but crossing those bridges. In this sense the work of translators and interpreters, mediators, or communication experts is fundamental. The great volume of international meetings and publications, seminars, courses or workshops that have taken place in the 21st century is a sign of its vitality.

End-user utility is key. Country- based users of internationally- produced health communication resources need to be able to read, understand and apply the translated materials within their own contexts. Too often however, little or no attention is given to 7 end-user comprehensibility and the cultural appropriateness of even well translated materials. Hay reflexiones que son reflejo de la encrucijada en la que nos hallamos y un intento de aportar soluciones o vislumbrar el futuro que nos aguarda y que estamos construyendo. Figura 1. Baixauli-Olmos, L.

Camayd-Freixas, E. Cappelli, P. Vitalaru, E. Toledano eds. Deumert, A. Gentile, P.


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  7. Mikkelson, H. Rudvin, M. Sasso A. Tryuk, M. Vitaluru, E. Vargas Urpi M. Verrept, H. Martin eds. Ingleby et al. Zeng Y. These two words which form the title of our paper imply one another in the sense that translation remains the only means of cultural integration, the only means to ensure communication between two apparently different systems of thinking, the only means to remake the scales of pre-established values which are classified into inferior and superior values and classified according to influences, consanguinity, interests, etc.

    Key words: translation, cultural integration, self-translation, identity reconfiguration, languages-cultures, transgressive intentionality. Dans le cas de P. Lederer, : Ines La. Et, en fin de compte, V. Zarate, dir. Berman etc. Vieux : cuivre. Bibliographie Ballard, M. Berman, A. Berman A. Guilbert, L.

    Istrati, P. Jeanrenaud, M. Est, Samuel Tastet. Lederer, M. Mainguenau, D. Meschonnic, H. Vinay J. Her research studies focus on translation studies, poetics, French literature and civilisation. During her career, she has had a very intense reseach activity - about one hundred books, articles and studies published in Romania and abroad. Professional communication has become an area of scholarly investigation, a domain in which many professionals show their proficiency or compete for a job, and a discipline offered by many reputable academic programmes.

    Professional communication itself has evolved into a complex, interdisciplinary construct over the last 35 years. It has been investigated, described, conceptualized and taught by many scholars who have employed older, revised, combined or new methods. It is the purpose of the present paper to discuss some perspectives on professional communication modern, interpretive, critical, postmodern, rhetorical and the research undertaken to find adequate methods to teach it.

    The paper sheds light on the methods proposed by North American and Canadian researchers, who investigated professional communication and suggested teaching solutions for the transition from academia-to-workplace in an attempt to help novices develop into performant professionals. Amongst the discussed research and teaching methods the study surveys rhetorical genre studies, activity theory, situated learning, and multimodal discourse analysis. Keywords: professional communication, oral culture, rhetorical genre studies, activity theory, situated learning, multimodal discourse analysis.

    Professional spacialisms stand for all profession-related areas of human concern, such as public relations, promotionalism, journalism, human resources management, marketing, etc. The study of professional communication includes as diverse disciplines as the following: rhetoric, technical writing, visual communication, cross-cultural communication, technical and professional training, technical editing, digital literacy, composition theory, video production, corporate communication, publishing, etc. Such courses seek to make students understand how communicative practices shape and are influenced by culture, technology, history, more advanced theories of communication, and, finally, social practice.

    Professional communication tackles many different types of communication and uses several contrasting theoretical and methodological approaches. The broad-ranging research carried out in communication-related disciplines and the vast amount of literature written on the practicalities of communication have given rise to challenges for students, teachers and textbook authors, let alone to provide a clear and comprehensive picture of the subject. Given its broad spread, communication studies have been investigated rather in isolation, in a fragmented way, which explains the lack of a global view, of a hierarchical system of classification and an accurate description of the dependency relationships that professional communication bears to other disciplines or to co- disciplines.

    Within the vast area of professional communication, this paper seeks to provide a general perspective on the development of professional communication studies and on the research insights that can shed light on the pedagogical aspects of the formation of professional communication skills. To serve this purpose, our paper was designed to start with an introduction to communication studies and professional communication and to highlight the 21 st century challenges posed to professional communication.

    Further, it seeks to point out some communication-based theories, to show the beginnings of professional communication concerns, which range from English for Specific Purposes ESP to Writing Studies and Composition or Rhetoric, and to insist on functional writing and the rhetorical turn. Finally, the paper highlights some research insights and pedagogical methods proposed by North American and Canadian scholars which are expected to reduce the mismatch between the communication skills acquired in academia and the professional skills required at the workplace.

    The constitutive approach Stimulated by the unprecedented development of global and national economies and cooperation, communication studies have diversified and branched out into a myriad of disciplines, all related to human activities. Throughout decades, communication studies have conceptualized the processes, phenomena and actors which have contributed to shaping communication among socially engaged actors, professional identities and communities, within given constraints, power, authority and agency factors.

    As a discipline it is a relatively new one focused on the study of the ways in which the information and messages are produced, managed, distributed and consumed. Since communication relies increasingly on the swift change of technological development, on diversification and specialization, the modern society needs highly specialized and professionalized communicators capable of handling or solving all profession- related problems, which range from linguistic issues to digital ones.

    The need for professional communication skills The rapidly challenging needs triggered by the unprecedented digitalization of all sectors of human activity create a labour market demand for skilled or qualified communicators that can hardly be matched by the supply of trained and qualified communicators. Local businesses and international corporations located in various parts of the world are looking for employees with high performance communication skills which involve the following: writing, reading, editing, speaking, listening, software applications, computer graphics, and Internet research skills.

    Consequently, candidates with professional communication expertise or experience are more likely to contribute to the success of an organization. In the overtechnologized society we live in successful communication skills are crucial to any business and skilled candidates who bring to the job all these assets are more likely to be employed and appreciated. As a result, a growing number of universities compete to offer high quality professional communication training both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, all tailored to meet the challenges and exigencies of the rapidly changing technological progress.

    This new era is characterized by several major changes or features. These questions and other similar ones will take some time to be completely and accurately answered by researchers and practitioners. Indeed, what once was inalterable has turned into a new tendency wherein everything can be altered at once by means of technological devices. In addition, writing turned into an expanded and intense public conversation. Another consequence of the shift from print to oral culture is that rhetoric would reestablish its persuasive power and influence in society through the strategic use of well-conceived and eloquent expressions.

    This, will arguably, place more emphasis on the role of the professional communicator in any business, in social life, politics and popular culture and will increase his importance. This emerging state of affairs announces a new world of conversation media, in which spoken culture and the moving image replace print paper as the predominant media for exchanging our stories.

    The troubled landscape of professional communication poses thus adaptation problems to practitioners, policy makers, academics, who need to anticipate the future evolution of professional communication and its component fields and find adequate ways to cope with the new requirements. Consequently, professional communication has become a complex, interdisciplinary construct made up of several, diverse disciplines and fields, difficult to capture in an overarching, hierarchy or taxonomy.

    If, in general, the definition of professional communication is oversimplified to communicating in writing, orally, visually and digitally, professional communication is much more. But then, all communication is dealt with within the wider fields of sociology, politics, psychology, anthropology, linguistics, etc.

    The major question that arises and is subject to scholarly investigation and debate is how the practice of professional communication can affect society, the individual and business, given the critical tendency of research inquiry to observe the relationships of power, influence and control in society. Consequently, many of the discussions are to do with the relationship communication bears to society and how it can shape the individual professionally. In order to better understand the perspectives that underlie professional communication, we shall cast a look at the four major stances.

    By applying the rules or principles which govern the communication process to real situations, users became more aware of the factors involved in the process and started using them to their benefit, while also increasing their efficiency. Interpretative research in communication relies on the ethnographic tradition in anthropology, tending to reveal the complexity and richness of communication. The research in this tradition involves field work, the collection of recorded conversations, stories, rituals and other routine activities in offices or organizations, and the use of qualitative research methods.

    In cross-cultural interactions this method yielded information about the context in which an interaction takes place, including feedback. Therefore, such a method can provide relevant information about communication practices. Critical perspectives adopt a political critique view of the world looking at the way in which power is exercised under industrial capitalism Blundel, The methods used by researchers belong to modern and interpretive perspectives, but the approach is more sceptical towards the established institutions.

    Applied to communication studies, the critical perspective provides more insights into the communication process es. Postmodernism questions whether researchers can really approach their subjects in an objective way and whether they can establish valid laws for the world phenomena and processes.

    The research method used to study communication issues is discourse analysis. From ESP to Writing Studies Historically, following more pragmatic research paths, the development of studies in professional communication went side by side with the growth of research in teaching English in the s- s. While the ESP tradition has continued to focus to a large extent on the textual realizations of oral and written professional communication by speakers of EAL, in North America this resulted in the development of research in a new direction, in the tradition of Writing Studies or Composition and Rhetoric.

    Many research studies have been conducted in the areas of writing in engineering, finance, law, in other disciplines and in the writing of professionals in various fields Bazerman ; Faigley ; Witte and Faigley In North America, the studies focused on the investigation of writing in academia and workplace settings as situated within socio-cultural, historical or rhetorical contexts for English speaking students.

    The interest in non-academic writing conducted to the growth of the new field of Technical and Professional Communication, and thus to new areas of research inquiry. A wealth of studies investigated ways in which students and novices could be trained to become competent communicators within their profession. It should be noted, however, that these studies are equally grounded in pedagogical traditions which blend with a maturing rhetorical tradition. Functional Writing- Rhetorical genre studies RGS By the s, as a result of the social-oriented perception of the process of writing, writing started to be investigated in its relation to the social conditions it was generated in Cooper ; Cooper and Holzman ; Miller A revival of interest in rhetoric in the s prompted the development of New Rhetoric, an approach which resulted in the integration of rhetorics into the studies that taught technical and professional communication in the USA and Canada Artemeva and Fox They explain that this kind of communication is the one used by novices entering professional settings in which they are expected to demonstrate efficiency and proficiency.

    According to Miller , genre is regarded as developing in response to social need and in co-construction with a recognizable construal of a rhetorical situation Bawarshi ; Pare and Smart , perceived as a combination of purpose, Schryer Idem Once the boundaries of genres have been broken, scholars accepted and looked for aspects that could influence the construction or modification of genres. According to Berkenkotter and Huckin , genres can be modified by circumstances.

    The studies revealed the norms and practices that rhetorical communities used. These investigations opened up a further range of studies that sought to establish the relationships between genres and between interrelated genres. Another stage in the development of the RGS movement was the concern shown to the concept of agency agent, social actor.

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    During much of the first and second decades of the 21 st century, the focus of North American researchers was on bridging the mismatch between academic training and the professional skills needed on the market. Language is bound to society, its social practices and, finally, politics, the politics involved in the issues pertaining to a profession. Ideology in professional discourse or communication must be looked at from the points of view of what ideology means and what its functions are, what cognitive processes are involved and what linguistic representation they would have.

    Ideology is also characterized through social dimensions, representational dimensions of ideology. All these representations and their modes of linguistic realization must be analyzed in close connection with the -performers or participants in the professional processes activities , in cognitive processes, in relational and representational processes. In spite of the fact that most of the studies in professional communication focus on practice and practice-related issues, an overwhelming amount of research has been carried out in the area of theoretical issues in North America and Canada in the last 35 years.

    On the other hand, some other scholars have interrogated the possibility of portability of communication skills and strategies from school-to-workplace.

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    The other option left to trainers would be to train the novices or recently employed communicators at the workplace. The theoretical approaches that informed the school-to-work or academy- to-workplace transition were Rhetorical Genre Studies RGS , activity theory AT , situated learning SL and distributed cognition.

    Research- wise, this approach shed light on some issues pertaining to genres, such as the evolution of genres Bazerman ; Bazerman and Paradis , the development of genres in response to socio-cultural, ideological and political circumstances. According to Artemeva and Fox , RGS also contributed to understanding the process of genre acquisition and use during the school-to-work transition, due to researchers like Bazerman, Bonini and Figueiredo , Coe et al.

    The collective activity is driven by an object-related motive, the individual or group level activity is driven by a conscious goal and the last level, the bottom level of automatic operations is driven by the available conditions and tools. Artemeva used the model in her study conducted on an engineering student who was learning to communicate as a novice in the workplace.

    She found out that the transfer of learning from the university to the workplace was based on automatic operations in the workplace. Researchers enriched their area of inquiry looking further to how professional identity can be formed. In view of this purpose, Schryer, Lingard and Spafford 23 observe that a novice acquires Not only the regulated resources of their profession but also and more importantly regularized ways of knowing.

    Both forms of knowing embody professional values and are essential to the process of professional identity formation. This tendency, based on theories of action, is explained by Bhatia et al. In an extensive project, Artemeva and Fox examined professional communication practices of mathematics instructors teaching within the university- as-workplace with a view to understanding the transition process graduate students and novice instructors undergo as they learn to become experienced university mathematics teachers.

    Artemeva and Fox point to some new forms of teaching that have accompanied traditional classroom teaching, such as online teaching, teaching through internships, cooperative education and service learning, and appreciate the potential of these forms for the transfer of learning. They also acknowledge that technological advances have made data collection and recording extremely easy, and that they made qualitative data analysis possible.

    The unprecedented development of electronic multimodal investigation tools will turn investigations into more complex and accurate processes thereby also recording a far more complex world of spoken, written, of non-verbal and other semiotic system-based data. The impressive development of research in the field of professional communication along with the mentioned dynamic approaches highlight the tendency to consider professional communication as part of social actions that generate ordinary and professional practices.