Children with identified deficits may be provided with enhanced education in specific skills such as phonological awareness. In addition to basic abilities, the individual's personality traits are also important, with people higher in conscientiousness and hope attaining superior academic achievements, even after controlling for intelligence and past performance. Developmental psychology, and especially the psychology of cognitive development, opens a special perspective for educational psychology.
This is so because education and the psychology of cognitive development converge on a number of crucial assumptions. First, the psychology of cognitive development defines human cognitive competence at successive phases of development. Education aims to help students acquire knowledge and develop skills which are compatible with their understanding and problem-solving capabilities at different ages. Thus, knowing the students' level on a developmental sequence provides information on the kind and level of knowledge they can assimilate, which, in turn, can be used as a frame for organizing the subject matter to be taught at different school grades.
This is the reason why Piaget's theory of cognitive development was so influential for education, especially mathematics and science education. Second, the psychology of cognitive development involves understanding how cognitive change takes place and recognizing the factors and processes which enable cognitive competence to develop.
Education also capitalizes on cognitive change, because the construction of knowledge presupposes effective teaching methods that would move the student from a lower to a higher level of understanding. Finally, the psychology of cognitive development is concerned with individual differences in the organization of cognitive processes and abilities, in their rate of change, and in their mechanisms of change.
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The principles underlying intra- and inter-individual differences could be educationally useful, because knowing how students differ in regard to the various dimensions of cognitive development, such as processing and representational capacity, self-understanding and self-regulation, and the various domains of understanding, such as mathematical, scientific, or verbal abilities, would enable the teacher to cater for the needs of the different students so that no one is left behind.
Constructivism is a category of learning theory in which emphasis is placed on the agency and prior "knowing" and experience of the learner, and often on the social and cultural determinants of the learning process. Educational psychologists distinguish individual or psychological constructivism, identified with Piaget's theory of cognitive development , from social constructivism.
A dominant influence on the latter type is Lev Vygotsky 's work on sociocultural learning, describing how interactions with adults, more capable peers, and cognitive tools are internalized to form mental constructs. Elaborating on Vygotsky's theory, Jerome Bruner and other educational psychologists developed the important concept of instructional scaffolding , in which the social or information environment offers supports for learning that are gradually withdrawn as they become internalized. Jean Piaget was interested in how an organism adapts to its environment. Piaget hypothesized that infants are born with a schema operating at birth that he called "reflexes".
Piaget identified four stages in cognitive development. The four stages are sensorimotor stage, pre-operational stage, concrete operational stage and formal operational stage. To understand the characteristics of learners in childhood , adolescence , adulthood , and old age , educational psychology develops and applies theories of human development. For example, educational psychologists have conducted research on the instructional applicability of Jean Piaget's theory of development , according to which children mature through four stages of cognitive capability.
Piaget hypothesized that children are not capable of abstract logical thought until they are older than about 11 years, and therefore younger children need to be taught using concrete objects and examples. Researchers have found that transitions, such as from concrete to abstract logical thought, do not occur at the same time in all domains. A child may be able to think abstractly about mathematics, but remain limited to concrete thought when reasoning about human relationships.
Perhaps Piaget's most enduring contribution is his insight that people actively construct their understanding through a self-regulatory process. Piaget's views of moral development were elaborated by Kohlberg into a stage theory of moral development. There is evidence that the moral reasoning described in stage theories is not sufficient to account for moral behavior. For example, other factors such as modeling as described by the social cognitive theory of morality are required to explain bullying.
Rudolf Steiner 's model of child development interrelates physical, emotional, cognitive, and moral development  in developmental stages similar to those later described by Piaget. Developmental theories are sometimes presented not as shifts between qualitatively different stages, but as gradual increments on separate dimensions. Development of epistemological beliefs beliefs about knowledge have been described in terms of gradual changes in people's belief in: certainty and permanence of knowledge, fixedness of ability, and credibility of authorities such as teachers and experts.
People develop more sophisticated beliefs about knowledge as they gain in education and maturity. Motivation is an internal state that activates, guides and sustains behavior. Motivation can have several impacting effects on how students learn and how they behave towards subject matter: . Educational psychology research on motivation is concerned with the volition or will that students bring to a task, their level of interest and intrinsic motivation , the personally held goals that guide their behavior, and their belief about the causes of their success or failure.
As intrinsic motivation deals with activities that act as their own rewards, extrinsic motivation deals with motivations that are brought on by consequences or punishments. A form of attribution theory developed by Bernard Weiner  describes how students' beliefs about the causes of academic success or failure affect their emotions and motivations. For example, when students attribute failure to lack of ability, and ability is perceived as uncontrollable, they experience the emotions of shame and embarrassment and consequently decrease effort and show poorer performance.
In contrast, when students attribute failure to lack of effort, and effort is perceived as controllable, they experience the emotion of guilt and consequently increase effort and show improved performance.
SDT focuses on the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in driving human behavior and posits inherent growth and development tendencies. It emphasizes the degree to which an individual's behavior is self-motivated and self-determined. When applied to the realm of education, the self-determination theory is concerned primarily with promoting in students an interest in learning, a value of education, and a confidence in their own capacities and attributes.
Motivational theories also explain how learners' goals affect the way they engage with academic tasks. Those who have performance approach goals strive for high grades and seek opportunities to demonstrate their abilities.
Those who have performance avoidance goals are driven by fear of failure and avoid situations where their abilities are exposed. Research has found that mastery goals are associated with many positive outcomes such as persistence in the face of failure, preference for challenging tasks, creativity and intrinsic motivation.
Performance avoidance goals are associated with negative outcomes such as poor concentration while studying, disorganized studying, less self-regulation, shallow information processing and test anxiety. Performance approach goals are associated with positive outcomes, and some negative outcomes such as an unwillingness to seek help and shallow information processing.
Locus of control is a salient factor in the successful academic performance of students. During the s and '80s, Cassandra B. Whyte did significant educational research studying locus of control as related to the academic achievement of students pursuing higher education coursework. Much of her educational research and publications focused upon the theories of Julian B. Rotter in regard to the importance of internal control and successful academic performance.
Therefore, it is important to provide education and counseling in this regard. Instructional design , the systematic design of materials, activities and interactive environments for learning, is broadly informed by educational psychology theories and research. For example, in defining learning goals or objectives, instructional designers often use a taxonomy of educational objectives created by Benjamin Bloom and colleagues.
Bloom  discovered that a combination of mastery learning with one-to-one tutoring is highly effective, producing learning outcomes far exceeding those normally achieved in classroom instruction. The following list of technological resources incorporate computer-aided instruction and intelligence for educational psychologists and their students:. Technology is essential to the field of educational psychology, not only for the psychologist themselves as far as testing, organization, and resources, but also for students.
Educational Psychologists whom reside in the K- 12 setting focus the majority of their time with Special Education students. It has been found that students with disabilities learning through technology such as IPad applications and videos are more engaged and motivated to learn in the classroom setting. Liu et al. The authors explain that learning technology also allows for students with social- emotional disabilities to participate in distance learning. Research on classroom management and pedagogy is conducted to guide teaching practice and form a foundation for teacher education programs.
The goals of classroom management are to create an environment conducive to learning and to develop students' self-management skills. More specifically, classroom management strives to create positive teacher—student and peer relationships, manage student groups to sustain on-task behavior, and use counseling and other psychological methods to aid students who present persistent psychosocial problems. Introductory educational psychology is a commonly required area of study in most North American teacher education programs.
When taught in that context, its content varies, but it typically emphasizes learning theories especially cognitively oriented ones , issues about motivation, assessment of students' learning, and classroom management. A developing Wikibook about educational psychology gives more detail about the educational psychology topics that are typically presented in preservice teacher education. In order to become an educational psychologist, students can complete an undergraduate degree in their choice.
Most students today are also receiving their doctorate degrees in order to hold the "psychologist" title. Educational psychologists work in a variety of settings. Some work in university settings where they carry out research on the cognitive and social processes of human development, learning and education. Educational psychologists may also work as consultants in designing and creating educational materials, classroom programs and online courses. Educational psychologists who work in k—12 school settings closely related are school psychologists in the US and Canada are trained at the master's and doctoral levels.
In addition to conducting assessments, school psychologists provide services such as academic and behavioral intervention, counseling, teacher consultation, and crisis intervention.
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However, school psychologists are generally more individual-oriented towards students. Many colleges and high schools are starting to teach students how to teach students in the classroom.
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In colleges educational psychology is starting to be a general education requirement. One in four psychologists are employed in educational settings. In recent decades the participation of women as professional researchers in North American educational psychology has risen dramatically. Educational psychology, as much as any other field of psychology heavily relies on a balance of pure observation and quantitative methods in psychology. The study of education generally combines the studies of history , sociology , and ethics with theoretical approaches. Smeyers and Depaepe explain that historically, the study of education and child rearing have been associated with the interests of policymakers and practitioners within the educational field, however, the recent shift to sociology and psychology has opened the door for new findings in education as a social science.
Now being its own academic discipline, educational psychology has proven to be helpful for social science researchers. Quantitative research is the backing to most observable phenomena in psychology. This involves observing, creating, and understanding a distribution of data based upon the studies subject matter. Researchers use particular variables to interpret their data distributions from their research and employ statistics as a way of creating data tables and analyzing their data.
Psychology has moved from the "common sense" reputations initially posed by Thomas Reid to the methodology approach comparing independent and dependent variables through natural observation , experiments , or combinations of the two. Though results are still, with statistical methods, objectively true based upon significance variables or p- values. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. Basic types. Applied psychology. Main article: Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development.
Main article: Constructivism. For broader coverage of this topic, see Educational technology. Education portal Psychology portal. The lack of representation of educational psychology and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Educational Psychology , 25, — School psychology: Learning lessons from history and moving forward. School Psychology International, 31 6 , Retrieved May 5, Educational psychology: A century of contributions. Schooling as a means of popular education: Pestalozzi's method as a popular education experiment. An introduction to the history of psychology.
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Talks to teachers on psychology and to students on some of life's ideals. Education: A first book. New York: MacMillan. How we think. New York D. Bloom's taxonomy of learning domains. School Psychology Quarterly , 15, — Journal of School Psychology , 39, — Undermining children's intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: A test of the "overjustification" hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 28, — Achievement-based rewards and intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive mediators.
Journal of Educational Psychology , 97, — A summary of the effects of reward contingencies on interest and performance. The Behavior Analyst Today , 3, — Multimedia learning. Massed versus distributed repeated reading: A case of forgetting helping recall? Journal of Educational Psychology , 82, — Spacing effects and their implications for theory and practice.
Educational Psychology Review , 1, — Fading mnemonic memories: Here's looking anew, again! Contemporary Educational Psychology , 25, — When problem solving is superior to studying worked examples. Journal of Educational Psychology , 93, — Educational Psychology 3rd Canadian ed. Toronto, Canada: Pearson. American Journal of Psychology , 15, — New York: Basic Books. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. New York: Psychological Corp.
Hope uniquely predicts objective academic achievement above intelligence, personality, and previous academic achievement. Journal of Research in Personality. Thinking goes to school: Piaget's theory in practice.
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A three level of theory of the developing mind: Basic principles and implications for instruction and assessment. Williams Eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Ferrari and L.
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Vuletic Eds. New York: Springer. Intellectual development: Birth to adulthood. New York: Academic Press. The role of central conceptual structures in the development of children's mathematical and scientific thought. Demetriou, M. Efklides Eds. London: Routledge. Educational Psychology: Second Edition.
Global Text Project, , pp. Educational Psychology Interactive. Retrieved Epistemological beliefs and approaches to learning: Their change through secondary school and their influence on academic performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology , 75, — Green Education Foundation.
Interpersonal and intrapersonal theories of motivation from an attributional perspective. Educational Psychology Review , 12, 1— Educational Psychologist. Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist , 34, — New Directions Sourcebook. Jossey-Bass, Inc. San Francisco. Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance , 6 4 , — A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives.
The two sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher , 13 6 , 4— Further Education. Find a Further Education Title.
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Contact a Further Education Rep. Contact Us. Education Studies in Ireland. Take a look inside. Presents a comprehensive introduction to the five key disciplines that form the foundation of the study of education: Philosophy of Education History of Education Sociology of Education Curriculum Studies Psychology of Education. Includes critical accounts of recent policy developments within education in Ireland, identifying their relevance to those undertaking studies in education and those preparing to enter professional practice.
Explains the core theories, professional practices and challenges associated with the study of education in each of the five key disciplines. Provides an overview of new developments in each of the disciplines, outlining the relevance to teaching and learning. Details a comprehensive list of references and recommendations for further reading. WRITTEN FOR: Students taking the Postgraduate Diploma in Education Students enrolled in any education course at undergraduate or postgraduate level Students studying for initial teacher education degrees Professional practitioners seeking to update their knowledge of the core disciplines of educational practice and their contemporary relevance and application.
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