In he founded his own production company, Zeta Films, through which he created high-profile commercials and shorts. From to , he composed music for six Mexican feature films. Young and dumb, they take a road trip to a distant beach with a glamorous but troubled older woman, Luisa Maribel Verdu , and get an education at her hands that is anything but sentimental. From the first frames, it reveals itself as an outrageously, uproariously sexed-up piece of work, stylishly directed by Alfonso Cuaron from a script by his brother Carlos. The camera, in one of many unobtrusively long takes, noses into the bedroom of Tenoch who is shagging his girlfriend Ana with all-nude, slack-jawed, buttock-pounding fervour.
Like sex, masturbation is treated with an unapologetic frankness rarely found in our genteel anglophone cinema. While the three get high in the car and gigglingly discuss the merits of inserting a finger up the. The voiceover provides an extraordinary dose of severity, combining social analysis, political insight and an unflinching glimpse into the secret lives of these apparently ingenuous young boys.
All the time, the death theme continues underneath. After quite a bit of weed, Luisa tells her two companions about her first sexual experience; then she tells them the boy died, at the age of Their age. And what is it that Julio wants to listen to on the car radio? Lubezki and Cuaron find riveting images and cameos, perhaps genuine discoveries from their location work on the road: an old lady does a jigging little dance in the kitchen of her bar, and a placid village festival queen, dressed like a bride, smiles at passers-by while her neighbours solicit pious donations. As Luisa, Verdu is sexy, tender and poignant.
This film is an exhilarating adventure in narrative, eroticism and social commentary. Truth is cool, but unattainable. It exudes life everywhere. The film is challenging to categorize. The plot seems to be a perfect equation for the latest Mexican sex comedy. We are first introduced to Tenoch Diego Luna as we watch him having sex with his equally libidinous girlfriend, quickly followed by a scene of Julio. The audience is immediately aware of the differences between these two best friends, as a recurring voiceover explains that Tenoch—a boy from an upper class political family—is allowed to spend the night with his girlfriend, whereas Julio must return in the evening to his working class mother.
Neither of the boys care much about politics, although the issue permeates every facet of their lives and is often times reflected in them and their interactions. But the boys choose to disregard. Instead they live in their very own testosterone filled bubble. She is seen in a clingy white dress that leaves little to the imagination. Tenoch and Julio begin to drunkenly and clumsily flirt with her in an almost predatory fashion. And initially they do.
But due to circumstances beyond her control, including an intoxicated admission by her husband that he has been unfaithful, Luisa decides a road trip with two rambunctious teens may be just what she needs. They pass exaggerated tales back and forth, bragging about their sexuality and their partying in hopes of impressing the fantasy woman who has somehow found her way into their car.
They even reveal to her their Manifesto, signed in blood. The two protagonists are inherently bonded thanks to this manifesto, despite their drastically different home lives. Although overt clashes never occur between the classes, the tensions still deeply penetrate the film and its characters. These simple revelations by the voiceover narrator reveal the undeniable division between classes and attitudes in the country, despite an image that they live harmoniously together.
Until age 4, Tenoch called her. Mom, suggesting that these divisions are culturally manifested issues. Yet they still must remain—Tenoch chooses not to speak about his nanny, despite the revelation that he is in her birthplace. For example, when a poverty-stricken man comes begging at a restaurant, he is quickly appeased and disregarded by the protagonists.
But the camera leaves the characters and explores the other individuals in the space, including the lower class women working and dancing in the back room. The audience often is directed towards citizens being stopped and interrogated by police. Luisa stirs up their homeostasis and the differences between the two protagonists become more pronounced, resulting in viscous competition.
When they do make peace in a homoerotic moment, it becomes very apparent in the bright sober light that this reconciliation will not, and cannot happen. The world simply does not work in this way, despite efforts by Luisa to educate and pacify them. In the end, the film comes off as not only a character exploration, but also a political and social commentary on Mexico during the early s. We are constantly reminded that although this may be a fresh day, the problems, inequalities and injustices of the past still pervade, and that the carefree ignorance of youth can only last so long.
After having childish fun, everyone must face reality. Cuaron worked on television production in Mexico as a technician and then a director. He wanted to get rid of the traditional tool filmmakers were using to make films. In a way he was rebelling against they way people believed movies had to be made in Hollywood and he embraced a philosophy similar to the New Wave and Neorealism, Cuaron stepped outside of the studio in order to capture life as it is.
He utilized a documentary style camera thus making setups lighter and getting rid of traditional locked off shots. But Cuaron wanted to make it in Spanish and highlight the real world of Mexico, its people, culture, and land. Thus with minimal technical setups and an outlined script that was worked out during production, Cuaron and his cast and crew were able to create a film that depicted life in Mexico while coupling it with a fictional story. Use the words from the question in your response. Conclude by referring to the question.
Discuss hand-held camera work is used to add realism and how this may link to the themses. Dicuss the political and historical context. Discuss your knowledge of the direcors. Always reference the director and release date. Go into the exam with micro detail from two or three scenes from each film. Respond with a confident voice. ExaM technique. Plan In the exam, you will have 6o minutes for Section A - allow yourself 5 minutes to put together a plan.
Example Intro Mexican cinema has an interesting history. Who knows where it could be today if it followed the path of Hollywood as it had a parallel Golden Age through the ss, but it was regulation and censorship that blocked this perhaps successful path. It was genre in the 80s as Hollywood popularised Horror, Mexico turned its back on these anti-Catholic visuals and themes. However, IMCINE was formed in the 90s, privatising the film industry and releasing the shackles of censorship and political agenda.
Both directors schooled and exposed to French New Wave and Italian Neo-Realism, clearly influencing the style and themes of the films. The characters were having sex, violent, committing crime and consuming drugs. This was a new horizon for Mexican cinema and in particular its effect on Mexican audiences. Cuaron has defined the release of YTMT as a sociological event because it gave its young people the confidence to tackle issues. Their situations are defined by their class, a theme contextually driven; a society crying for political change to reidentify its country and was on the brink of doing so.
Make sure that you are answering the question within your paragraph. This is often just evidenced with a phrase or sentence by reinforcing your original point now that it has been developed. Refer in detail to the films you have studied for this topic. This section looks at the relationship between the audience and documentary maker. It questions how films can position audiences, as well as how active and passive audiences react from documentary. We compare the modes of different documentaries. In film theory, the audience is a collective group made up of different people who are the intended target for the film.
The spectator is an individual someone who looks at the text and responds independently. Scripted narration connects the story elements and often unpacks a thesis or an argument. The expository mode is the most familiar. Expository docs are heavily researched and are sometimes referred to as essay films because they aim to educate and explain things — events, issues, ways of life, worlds and exotic settings we know little about.
POETIC Instead of using traditional linear continuity to create story structure, the poetic documentary filmmaker arrives at its point by arranging footage in an order to evoke an audience association through tone, rhythm, or spatial juxtaposition. Filmmakers operating in the poetic mode typically emphasize cinematic values over content to create. Shot design, composition and rhythm achieved in editing are hallmarks of the genre.
The narrative, if there is one, is expressed visually rather than rhetorically. Observational docs strive for cinematic realism. The gritty realism produced by actuality filmmakers of the s and 70s was achieved through technological advances made ten years earlier: faster lenses for shooting in low light conditions and smaller cameras that could now be handheld and were no longer tethered to a sound recorder with an audio sync cable. An unobtrusive crew of two could shoot almost anywhere with available light and follow actuality as it unfolded.
Up until then, bulky film production gear required finicky technical setups and careful staging of the action. There is no intervention by the filmmaker, no interview questions, no commentary to camera, no narration. On location, Wiseman records the sound and handles the microphone. Wiseman communicates with his cameraperson through pre-arranged hand signals and directs by pointing his microphone at what he wants filmed. The participatory documentary invited the subjects to participate with the filmmaker -- usually by being interviewed. Reflexive docs challenge assumptions and expectations about the form itself.
The film is silent and contains no interstitial titles. Also intercut with scenes of factories, trains and crowded streets are short sequences of a diligent film editor working with individual frames from the film. By clever. The most Brechtian of the sub-genres, reflexive documentary is not about the relationship with the filmmaker and the subject, but rather the filmmaker and the audience.
The filmmaker shows a larger political or historical reality through the window of their own experience.
Rather than rely on the expository approach, the rhetoric of persuasion, the performative filmmaker becomes a personal guide who shows it and tells it like it is with raw emotion. If we do not know it, than the reconstruction paint the picture. In the wake of the Columbine High School massacre in , the intrepid documentarian Michael Moore set out to investigate the long, often volatile love affair between Americans and their firearms, uncovering the pervasive culture of fear that keeps the nation locked and loaded.
An unprecedented popular success that helped usher in a new era in documentary filmmaking, the Oscar-winning Bowling for Columbine is a raucous, impassioned, and still tragically relevant journey through the American psyche. Brandishing an arsenal of semiautomatic weapons, shotguns, pipe bombs and knives, the pair killed 13 of their classmates and teachers, before turning their guns on themselves. At the time, Bowling For Columbine was the highest-grossing documentary an honour now.
Heston readily agrees to speak to Moore when he reveals that he too is a member of the NRA, but the tense interview that follows is a bittersweet victory for the filmmaker. Its winding narrative is designed to take the audience on a theatrical journey, similar to that of a feature film, leading some commentators to question whether this, and subsequent films, can truly be called documentaries at all.
So while the film is undoubtedly informative, it frequently challenges our perception of entertainment versus documentary. Prior to this, cinematic releases for documentary films were rare, and sporadic at best. Documentary cinema has since become big business. But perhaps the question we should really be asking ourselves, is do we want our documentaries to entertain or inform us — and is it possible to have both without compromising their validity? There is no right or wrong answer, but if audience numbers are anything to go by, Moore may have just found the perfect balance.
With such a presence from Moore in the film, it has been argued that Bowling for Columbine is a subjective film and some even argue that it is not a documentary. To what extent do you agree? What is the purpose of Bowling for Columbine? The injustice here is not so much to the viewer, as to the independent producers of real documentaries. Bowling makes its points by deceiving and by misleading the viewer. Statements are made which are false. Moore invites the reader to draw inferences which he must have known were wrong. These occur with such frequency and seriousness as to rule out unintentional error.
Any polite description would be inadequate, so let me be blunt. Bowling uses deliberate deception as its primary tool of persuasion and effect. A film which does this may be a commercial success. It may be amusing, or it may be moving. But it is not a documentary. One need only consult Rule 12 of the rules for the Academy Award: a documentary must be non-fictional, and even re-enactments much less doctoring of a speech must stress fact and not fiction.
To the Academy voters, some silly rules were not a bar to giving the award. The documentary category, the one refuge for works which educated and informed, is now no more than another subcategory of entertainment. Serious charges require serious evidence. The point is not that Bowling is unfair, or that its conclusions are incorrect. No, the point is that Bowling is deliberately, seriously, and consistently deceptive. A viewer cannot count upon any aspect of it, even when the viewer believes he is seeing video of an event occurring or a person speaking.
Words are cheap. Lockheed-Martin and Nuclear Missiles. Bowling for Columbine contains a sequence filmed at the Lockheed-Martin manufacturing facility, near Columbine. Moore interviews a PR fellow, shows missiles being built, and then asks whether knowledge that weapons of mass destruction were being built nearby might have motivated the Columbine shooters in committing their own mass slaying. Soon after Bowling was released someone checked out the claim, and found that the Lockheed-Martin plant does not build weapons-type missiles; it makes rockets for launching satellites.
Cut to Heston supposedly continuing speech Wellington Webb, the Mayor of Denver. Some of them are weather satellites, some are telecommunications satellites, and some are top secret Pentagon projects like the ones that are launched as spy satellites and others which are used to direct the launching of the nuclear missiles should the USA ever decide to use them. The dominant theme in Bowling and certainly the theme that has attracted most reviewers is that NRA is callous toward slayings. The theme begins early in the film, and forms its ending, as Moore confronts Heston, asserting that he keeps going to the scene of tragedies to hold defiant rallies.
In order to make this theme fit the facts, however, Bowling repeatedly distorts the evidence. Bowling portrays this with the following sequence: Weeping children outside Columbine, explaining how near they had come to death and how their friends had just been murdered before their eyes;. Moore successfully causes viewers to reach this conclusion. It is in fact false. Fact: The Denver event was not a demonstration relating to Columbine, but an annual meeting, whose place and date had been fixed years in advance.
Bowling leads off with this speech, and then splices in footage which was taken in Denver and refers to Denver, to create the impression that the entire clip was taken at the Denver event. Fact: When Bowling continues on to the speech which Heston did give in Denver, it carefully edits it to change its theme. It is a lie, a fraud, and quite a few other things. Carrying it out required a LOT of editing to mislead the viewer, as I will show below. Moore has actually taken audio of seven sentences, from five different parts of the speech, and a section given in a different speech entirely, and spliced them together, to create a speech that was never given.
Each edit is cleverly covered by inserting a still or video footage for a few seconds. Moore then has an interlude -- a visual of a billboard and his narration. The interlude is vital. If he did that, you might ask why Heston in mid-speech changed from a purple tie and lavender shirt to a white shirt and red tie.
Or why the background draperies went from maroon to blue. Moore has to separate the two segments of this supposed speech to keep the viewer from noticing. This community is our home. Every community in America is our home. We are a year-old fixture of mainstream America. The Second Amendment ethic of lawful, responsible firearm ownership spans the broadest cross section of American life imaginable.
Moore then goes to show Heston speaking in Denver. This decision has perplexed a few and inconvenienced thousands. As your president, I apologize for that. Actually, Moore put an edit right in the middle of the first sentence! I know many of you here in this room could say the same thing. Again, Moore uses an editing trick to cover the doctoring. As Heston speaks, the video switches momentarily to a pan of the crowd, then back to Heston; the pan shot covers the doctoring.
So, we have the same right as all other citizens to be here. To help shoulder the grief and share our sorrow and to offer our respectful, reassured voice to the national discourse that has erupted around this tragedy. Morris, MI, just north of Flint, making the claim that right after the shooting, NRA came to the locale to stage a defiant rally.
Fact: Moore should remember. On the same day, Moore himself was hosting a similar rally in Flint, for the Green Party. Moore follows up the impression with his Heston interview. This is hardly surprising; it was one rally in a nine-stop tour of three States in three days. He takes full advantage of Heston and of the viewer. Judging from reviews, Bowling creates exactly that impression. Bowling persuaded these reviewers by deceiving them. There was no rally shortly after the tragedy, nor 48 hours after it. When Heston said he did not know of the shooting which had happened eight months before his appearance, over a thousand miles from his home he was undoubtedly telling the truth.
The lie here is not that of Heston, but of Moore. The sad part is that the lie has proven so successful. This sequence is intended to create the impression either that NRA and the Klan were parallel groups or more likely that when the Klan was outlawed its members formed the NRA.
And viewers pick up just that message.
A2 Business Sociological and Technological Environment
These criminalized interference with civil rights, and empowered the President to suspend habeas corpus and to use troops to suppress the Klan. Grant used their provisions vigorously, suspending habeas corpus in South Carolina, sending troops into that and other states; under his leadership over 5, arrests were made and the Klan was dealt a serious if all too short-lived blow.
The NRA was founded in New York by two former Union officers, its first president was an Army of the Potomac commander, and eight of its first ten presidents were Union veterans. Fact: During the s and s, groups of blacks organized as NRA chapters in order to obtain surplus military rifles to fight off Klansmen. Shooting at Buell Elementary School in Michigan. Since the incident, he has stabbed another child with a knife. The Taliban and American Aid.
After discussing military assistance to various countries, Bowling asserts that the U. Fact: The aid in question was humanitarian assistance, given through UN and nongovernmental organizations, to relieve famine in Afghanistan. International Comparisons. To pound home its point, Bowling flashes a dramatic count of gun homicides in various countries: Canada , Germany , Australia 65, Japan 39, US 11, Verifying the figures was difficult, since Moore does not give a year for them, but I kept trying.
So far as I can find, Moore is the only one using these numbers. Germany: Bowling says Where Moore could have found this number is beyond me. And that is purely murder: if you. No figure matches or comes close. Australia: Bowling says This seems to be close, albeit picking the year to get the data desired. Between , firearm homicides varied wildly from , although never exactly If suicides and accidents are included, the numbers become US: Bowling says 11, FBI figures put it a lot lower.
They report gun homicides were 8, in , 8, in , 8, in In short, where Bowling gets its crime figures is largely a mystery. Many of them seem to trace back only to Bowling itself, and are not elsewhere reported: the most apparent explanation is that they were invented for the movie. Even the Canadian government is getting into the act. In one scene, Bowling shows Moore casually buying ammunition at an Ontario Walmart. I could buy as much ammunition as I wanted, in Canada. The law, in effect since , requires nonCanadians to present picture ID and a gun importation permit. The B was rather lucky: the American plane ahead of it and the one behind it were lost.
At one point in the evolution of this webpage, I suggested that Moore tries to suggest that Heston is a bigot. Beyond revulsion I never felt pity for that privileged, ignorant hypocrite. But if you look at some history missing from Bowling, you get exactly the opposite picture. Heston is talking, not about race, but about racism. In the early s, the civil rights movement was fighting for acceptance. Civil rights workers were subject to murder and beatings. The Kennedy Administration, trying to hold together a Democratic coalition that ranged from liberals to fire-eater segregationists such as George Wallace and Lester Maddox, found the issue too hot to touch, and prior to offered little aid.
Charlton Heston got involved, beginning with picketing discriminatory restaurants. Most of the viewers likely were born long after the events Heston is recalling. Heston remembers what it was really like, and finds a possible explanation of violence in the legacy of racism. Bowling probably has a good point when it suggests that we are prone to irrational fears, and the media feeds off this in a search for circulation and the fast buck.
Bowling cites some glaring examples: the razor blades in Halloween apples scare, the flesheating bacteria scare, etc. Then Moore does exactly what he condemns in the media. Given the prominence of schoolyard killings as a theme in Bowling for Columbine, Moore must have asked Glassner about that subject. Whatever Glassner footage was taken in this regard is, however, left on the cutting-room floor. Or does Bowling have a hidden punch line, and in the end the joke is on them? One possible explanation: did Bowling begin as one movie, and end up as another?
Conclusion The point is not that Bowling is unfair, or lacking in objectivity. One might hope that a documentary would be fair, but nothing rules out a rousing polemic. The point is far more fundamental: Bowling for Columbine is dishonest.
It is fraudulent. It fixes upon a theme, and advances it, whenever necessary, by deception. The bottom line: can a film be called a documentary when the viewer cannot trust an iota of it, not only the narration, but the video? I suppose film critics could debate that one for a long time, and some might prefer entertainment and effect to fact and truth.
But the Academy Award rules here are specific. Guns supposedly the point of the film. After making out Canada to be a haven of peace and safety, Moore asks why. He has Irish, as well as English and Scottish, ancestry. Moore studied journalism at the University of Michigan-Flint, and also pursued other hobbies such as gun shooting, for which he even won a competition. He has produced a string of documentary films and TV series predominantly about the same subject: attacks on corrupt politicians and greedy business corporations.
He landed his first big hit with Bowling for Columbine about the bad points of the right to bear arms in America, which earned him an Oscar and a big reputation. This is the highest-grossing documentary of all time. Michael is known for having the guts to give his opinion in public, which not many people are courageous enough to do, and for that is respected by many. And if a few people leave thinking about the issues, great. If one becomes active, great. I keep my expectations low. I know where I live. I love to go see a good movie And you want that, every time you go and you so rarely get it.
And I trust that a few million others will want to see it too. And the great thing about living in such a large country with million people is that I can literally have million people completely hate what I do, or not get it, or not go; but if 20 million people go and see this movie, the box office would be larger than Jaws. His partner, Teresa Turko, saw the killer drive off, but it took months of investigation for the police to discover that the car had been stolen by David Harris.
Harris, a year-old from the small town of Vidor, admitted to being in the car but said that the killer was Randall Adams, a man with whom he had hung around that day. Adams was tried for murder, found guilty, and sentenced to death. Eventually, through an appeal process, his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. Harris, because of his age and his cooperation with the police, was given a suspended sentence. Morris became convinced that Adams had been unjustly convicted, and over the next three years, he prepared a film on the case. The Thin Blue Line illustrates how a documentary can use narrative form, for at root it tells the story of events leading up to and following the murder of Officer Wood.
By juggling time, inserting many details, developing the reenactments of the killing into a powerful pattern, and subtly engaging our sympathy for Randall Adams, Morris not only takes us through a criminal case but also suggests how difficult the search for truth can be. The overall plot guides us through the story events, but not in a wholly linear way. Dallas, Randall Adams, and David Harris are introduced. Officer Wood is shot. First shooting reenactment 3. Adams is arrested and interrogated. First interrogation reenactment 4. Police describe the interrogation and the beginning of the investigation.
Second interrogation reenactment 5. Second shooting reenactment 6. Police search for the car, even using hypnotism. Third shooting reenactment 7. Big break: David Harris is discovered in Vidor, Texas. Harris accuses Randall Adams of the shooting. Adams is interrogated. Third interrogation reenactment Police explain the mistaken auto identification.
Fourth shooting reenactment Adams explains his alibi. Trial: Officer Turko testifies, implicating Adams. Fifth shooting reenactment Trial: New witnesses emerge. Miller claim to have seen Adams shoot Wood. Sixth shooting reenactment Seventh shooting reenactment Trial: Jury declares Adams guilty. Trial: Judge sentences Adams to death. Adams reacts to the death sentence. Vidor detective explains: Harris is arrested again. Rethinking the case: Witnesses reflect, and Harris hints that he has lied.
Eighth shooting reenactment Vidor detective explains: Harris has committed a murder in town. Harris, now on death row, reflects on his childhood. Title: Current situation of the two men. The opening sequence presents the city of Dallas; the two main characters, Randall Adams and David Harris; and their current situation: both men are in jail. What has brought them there? They tell of meeting each other and spending the day drinking,.
Segment 2 is the first of many shocking reenactments of the shooting of Officer Wood at the dark roadside. In the course of this, David Harris names Randall Adams as the killer 8 , and Adams is arrested and interrogated Eventually, the confusion about the make of the car is cleared up, though Morris hints that the police investigation was muddled Three surprise witnesses identify Adams as the shooter , although some of the testimony is undercut by a woman who claims that two witnesses bragged to her about trying to earn a reward Once more, at certain moments, the crime is reenacted.
The legal maneuvers that follow put Adams in prison for life without parole The film has answered one question posed at the outset: now we know how Randall Adams got to prison. But what of David Harris, who is also serving time? Harris is arrested for other crimes 25 , and then Morris inserts a sequence 26 designed to suggest his guilt in the Woods case.
The surprise eyewitnesses are shown to be. Harris, now revealed as a, polite, easygoing sociopath, reflects on his childhood, when his brother drowned and his father seemed to become more distant A title explains that Adams is still serving his life sentence, while Harris is on death row In outline, then, this is a straightforward tale of crime and injustice.
It demands a great deal of the viewer; it does not spell out its message in the manner of most documentaries. At another level, the film denies the viewer many of the usual aids for determining what happened on that night in Instead, it asks us to heighten our attention, to concentrate on details, and to weigh the incompatible information we are given. Morris uses talking-head interviews, newspaper headlines, maps, archival photos, and other documents to present information about the crime. There is no voiceover narrator explaining the situation, and no captions identify the speakers or provide dates.
This extra responsibility is intensified by a framing that is rare in most documentary interviews: several of the speakers look straight out at the camera This somewhat. Other formal and stylistic qualities complicate the plot. For example, when an interviewee mentions a particular place, Morris tends to insert a quick shot of that locale Instead, the scenes are built out of many close-ups: fingers resting on a steering wheel, a milkshake flying through the air in slow motion, the popcorn machine at a drive-in Again, Morris stresses the apparently trivial details that can affect our sense of what really happened on the highway.
Yet, carefully composed and lit in high-key, the details also become evocative motifs. Others, such as the ever-present clocks and watches, indicate the ominous passing of time; even the slowly shattering flashlight and the milkshake dribbling onto the pavement suggest the life pumping out of the fatally wounded officer. Central to those meanings are our attitudes toward the people presented in the film. By and large, the plot is shaped to create sympathy for Randall Adams.
He is the first person we see, and Morris immediately makes him appealing by letting him explain that he was grateful to find a good job immediately. By the end, Adams becomes the authoritative commentator. They are clearly set off as reconstructions by their use of techniques more closely associated with the fiction film, particularly film noir They also distinguish themselves from the restagings shown on true-crime television shows, which tend to include the faces of actors and which are usually shot in a loose, hand-held style suggesting that we are witnessing the real event. By presenting contradictory versions of what happened that night, Morris may seem to be suggesting that everyone involved saw things from his or her own perspective, and so there is no final fact of the matter.
But the overall progression of the film leads us to a likely conclusion: that David Harris, on his own, killed Wood. Like jurors or courtroom spectators, we have to decide on the most plausible version, and the plot develops the reenactments in a strongly suggestive pattern. In the segments devoted to the police investigation, the restagings emphasize matters of procedure. Did Officer Turko identify the car correctly? No, the police detectives eventually decide; but both before. Another question is just as important: Did Turko back up Officer Wood according to procedure, or did she remain in the car?
Morris dramatizes both possibilities, but he leads us to infer that she probably was inside the car drinking her milkshake, since in the crime scene sketch, spilled chocolate liquid was found near the car. It is a matter of probabilities, and we can never be certain; but on the evidence we are given, we infer that she probably did not back up Wood.
Was David Harris ducking down in the front seat? When the surprise witnesses are introduced, Morris shows reenactments that present their cars passing the murder scene. Again, the reconstructions present the alternatives neutrally, but some become more plausible than others, especially once the eyewitnesses are rebutted by other testimony or betrayed by their own evasive answers. The last reenactment, presented in the section devoted to David Harris, shows how Harris could have committed the murder, and significantly, it is accompanied by his voiceover commentary virtually confessing to it.
Morris carefully refrains from saying explicitly that Harris was the killer. Correspondingly, Morris uses other stylistic devices to make us mistrust the forces set against Adams. Most overtly critical of the authorities are two nearly comic digressions close to the sort of associational form exploited by Bruce Conner in A Movie pp. Judge Metcalfe recalls that he grew up with a great respect for law and order because his father was present when FBI agents shot the gangster John Dillinger A parallel montage appears during the remarks of one eyewitness, who says she always imagined herself as a girl detective, as in s TV shows.
Morris lets her voice-over commentary run during a clip from a B-film in which a young woman helps a detective capture a crook. The color motifs that evoke police authority and duplicity are subtler. The first few shots of the film show skyscrapers and other structures, each with a single blinking red light After a cut to Randall Adams beginning his tale, the screen goes dark, and we see the rotating red light of a police car, an image that will recur elsewhere in the film The motif of redness links Dallas and the police as forces aligned against Adams, and it suggests an explanation for why in the opening title credit, the word Blue is lettered in red By coloring the line red, Morris not only evokes bloodshed, but he links the police blue to the ominous blinking red lights of the opening.
David Harris, throughout his interviews in the film, is shown wearing an orange prison uniform, suggesting that he is another figure of betrayal and perhaps hinting at his relationship to the red of the police-car light. Like many documentarists, Morris highlighted certain aspects of existing footage to bring out thematic implications. Instead of simplifying the case for the sake of clarity, Morris treats it as a point where many stories crisscrossthe private lives of the eyewitnesses, the professional rivalries among lawyers, the Dillinger tale, TV crime dramas, scenes from the drive-in movie Adams and Harris attended.
Any crime, the film suggests, will consist of this tangle of threads. The Thin Blue Line builds these aspects of an investigation into its very structure and style. The narration grants each version of the shooting its time on screen, but it finally guides us to eliminate the implausible ones.
It dwells on trivial details, but finally discards certain ones as less important. The film presents itself as both an account of what really happened on that Texas highway and a meditation on how persistent inquirers can eventually arrive at truth. He attended graduate school at Princeton University and the University of California, Berkeley, but abandoned his studies to begin working as a film director.
His first film was the documentary Gates of Heaven , an offbeat exploration of two pet cemeteries in California and the people who have buried their pets there. He followed it with another documentary, Vernon, Florida , focusing on the eccentric residents of the titular town.
In the mids Morris worked as a private detective in New York City, and he applied his investigative skills to his third documentary, The Thin Blue Line , which reviewed the case of Randall Dale Adams, a death-row inmate convicted of having killed a Texas police officer. Morris branched out into fiction with The Dark Wind , adapted from a detective novel of the same name by Tony Hillerman, but he left the project before its completion.
He resumed his documentary career with A Brief History of Time , a film about the life and work of astrophysicist Stephen Hawking that won two awards at the Sundance Film Festival. In the s Morris invented a device he called the Interrotron, which allowed his interviewees to look directly at him and at the camera simultaneously. Two years later he directed Mr.
Leuchter, Jr. The film won an Academy Award for best documentary feature. Always in my mind was the fact that I have to produce evidence that will be sufficient to overturn this conviction in a court of law. The controversial film portrays the wretched conditions at The Bridgewater State Hospital for the criminally insane in Bridgewater, Massachusetts circa Titicut Follies was famously banned prior to its planned premiere at the New York Film Festival.
For years, the film was only able to be screened in academic settings. But in , a superior court judge said the film could be released to the general public since most of the inmates had died and that First Amendment concerns trumped privacy concerns. In a democratic society people have access to information from so many different sources.
He was initially planning to shoot the film, which eventually became Law and Order, in Los Angeles. But since there were no foot patrols at the time, his access was limited. In Jackson HeightsIn Jackson Heights How he finds a film through the editing process Wiseman said that not only was Titicut Follies his first film as director, but it was his first film as editor. As an example, he said he would not have intercut a scene of an inmate being force-fed with scenes of his funeral.
For Titicut Follies, he had about 80 hours of footage, whereas for his latest film, In Jackson Heights, he shot hours. I have no idea in advance what the structure or point of view of the film is going to be. That process alone might take him months. It has to do with studying the rushes. Cinema Verite is a French film movement, which took place back in the s. This film movement forced the movie industry to pay more attention towards incorporating natural actions and authentic dialogue into the movies, which showed people in day to day lives.
Basically, the movement was about observing and capturing life as it was or finding truth in the moving images. Before this movement, filmmakers recorded footage, interviews, and actual conversations separately. The camera was usually handheld. Then they would review the footage and cut them all together. However, this technique did not have the ability to give life to realistic looking movies. Many different factors influenced the production of documentary movies in the 20th century.
Post World War II, neorealist movement, and the British independent documentaries hold a prominent place out of them. In fact, all these reasons contributed significantly towards the rise of Cinema Verite during the s. However, film industry elites heavily criticized the Cinema Verite movement at that time. However, the primary objective of the Cinema Verite movement was to direct movie industry into greater realism.
The method made it possible to create a tremendous impact on the documentary filmmaking, which can even be seen today. Cinema Verite was able to give life to some of the outstanding productions in the history of French Cinema. It was powered by the introduction of 16mm equipment, which had the ability to record audio and video content in a synchronous manner.
This equipment was portable and relatively inexpensive when compared to the other devices that were being used in the movie industry at that time. The movement that took place in the United States was also known as Cinema Verite, but it became popular as Direct Cinema, because of the obvious language barrier. The primary objective of this movement was to capture the movements and expressions of a person in a realistic manner. This movement was against the rearrangement of the camera.
The immense contributions they did to the Cinema Verite movement in the United States delivers positive results even up to date. What Ever Happens, Happens! As mentioned earlier, Cinema Verite was able to create a significant impact on the global film industry.
Those influences can even be seen today. The popularity of modern documentary has significantly increased throughout the past couple of years. However, the roots of it go back to the s, where Maysles brothers came into the industry. It was changed along with the generations, but the primary influences remained unchanged. First of all, it is important to have a clear understanding of the meaning behind real documentaries. Even though movies that were based on actual stories were released back in history, the raw essence of people was not incorporated into them. In other words, real places, real events or the interests of real people were not taken into account as a whole when creating the documentaries.
Even though the exact meaning behind true documentary has changed along with time, it is based on some fact or truth. The first documentary was created back in by Robert J. This silent documentary was filmed in the frozen wilds of Canada. No historical evidence about a feature length documentary is found before this film, and it can be considered as the first ever documentary as a result of it.
The government of United States knew the importance of this documentary. This is the main reason why the government selected this documentary into the first 25 films to be preserved. The Library of Congress plays a significant role in these preservation activities. The increasing popularity of portable audio and camera equipment contributed a lot towards the origins of it. They took necessary measures to introduce new advancements into this conceptual style along with the help of direct cinema. These new additions emphasized direct relationships between the subjects and the film crew.
As a result, they were able to give life to more realistic looking productions at the end of the day.
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In fact, it delivered more freedom to the editor. The main difference that you can find in between these two styles is the presence of a narrator. On the other hand, a lot of time, as well as effort, are being put into the post production stage of modern documentaries.
The post production stage is associated with a variety of activities that include sound design, music design, graphic effects and other forms of editing. They looked more like the documentaries that were created by Michael Moore. Roger and Me is a perfect example to prove the fact mentioned above.
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Facts about Cinema Verite Cinema Verite is also known as observational cinema. If you pay close attention towards this style, you will figure it out as more of pure direct cinema. You will also be able to figure out a couple of subtle, but importance changes. Cinema Verite was associated with the interaction between the subject and the filmmaker along with style setups. This interaction was there up to the point of provocation as well. They firmly believed that it is the most convenient method available for them to express the truth behind the cinema.
Cinema Verite acknowledged the camera as well. In fact, the camera plays a significant role by filming people, objects and the events related to the scene in a confrontational manner. The primary goal of the filmmaker was to represent the exact reality that he was experiencing at the time of recording. They believed that giving life to such realistic outputs can free people from all sorts of deceptions. To achieve this, the filmmakers wanted to be the catalysts of all situations. As a result, they had to put a tremendous effort on the entire scene as well.
In the Cinema Verite style, the filmmakers set up the whole scene and then proceed to record them and capture lighting in a bottle. The filmmaker asked a group of senior individuals to fish for a whale. The result of the documentary was not recording how a group of elders was whale fishing. It was about lineage and memory. In this sense, Cinema Verite style is concerned about anthropological cinema. The political and social implications were also captured in the movies. On the other hand, it changed the way how a filmmaker shoots a film and what are the objects that are filed in it.
On the contrary, Cinema Verite focused on what specific objects should be recorded on a movie and the way how it should be presented to the audiences. Passive technique? Despite the sensitive treatment these inmates required, the center was nevertheless run — at the time — by the Department of Corrections, not the Department of Mental Health. Titicut Follies became at once a hot topic for newspapers, a useful document for rights activists as well as for students of documentary , and a deeply sensitive issue for the families personally involved.
But now, in , Wiseman has made over 30 films and is generally regarded to be one of the most unique and stylistically uncompromising documentary filmmakers. Unaffiliated with any school of filming or indeed with any film school , Wiseman has steadfastly pursued a completely individualized style of production, ranking him with the great auteurs and filmic innovators in cinema history. An understandable but inappropriate impression is that it merely sits back and watches.
The students and I planned out several arguments and they were given the freedom to select what they felt most appropriate and comfortable with. Homework was to finish the essay - which should be handwritten and take no longer than 50 minutes to put together. I hope it works as well for you as it has done for me - do tweet me variations on your lessons and essay titles BusinessSTP.
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Cart Account Log in Sign up. Business Explore Business Search Go. Business Blog. Print page. This guide can be extended or reduced: Stage one Stage one introduced a few mission statements and I asked students for their thoughts. Are they reflective, could they come up with something better? Next we discussed the purpose of having goals and what it means to have an aim. Examples were provided - some personal, some focused on HMV and Vodafone. Stage two Stage two was the intensive, directed theory - corporate aims and functional objectives were the focus.
Stage three Stage three was the case study - we used HMV, but there are several others that could be used. PC's with internet connection were a must. I allowed a single 40 minute lesson for this activity. Final stage The final stage was about putting together an essay. The essay we came up with was: "The way people use and buy music and film has changed and HMV has failed to respond to these new market conditions.
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