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Later on into the midth century there were attempts in Europe at an effective breech-loader. There were concentrated attempts at improved cartridges and methods of ignition. The needle-activated central-fire breech-loading gun would become a major feature of firearms thereafter. The Pauly cartridge was further improved by the French gunsmith Casimir Lefaucheux in , by adding a pinfire primer, but Lefaucheux did not register his patent until a pinfire cartridge containing powder in a card-board shell. In , another Frenchman Louis-Nicolas Flobert invented, for indoor shooting , the first rimfire metallic cartridge , constituted by a bullet fit in a percussion cap.

In , yet another Frenchman, Benjamin Houllier , patented the first fully metallic cartridge containing powder in a metallic shell. The first centrefire cartridge was introduced in by Pottet, with both Berdan and Boxer priming. In , the Norwegian Armed Forces adopted the breechloading caplock, the Kammerlader , one of the first instances in which a modern army widely adopted a breechloading rifle as its main infantry firearm. It was so called because of its. It began development in the s under Johann Nicolaus von Dreyse and eventually an improved version of it was adopted by Prussia in the late s.

The paper cartridge and the gun had numerous deficiencies; specifically, serious problems with gas leaking. However, the rifle was used to great success in the Prussian army in the Austro-Prussian war of This, and the Franco-Prussian war of —71, eventually caused much interest in Europe for breech loaders and the Prussian military system in general. In , the New Zealand government petitioned the Colonial Office for more soldiers to defend Auckland. The carbine had been issued in small numbers to English cavalry Hussars from About 3—4, carbines were brought into New Zealand a few years later.

The carbine was used extensively by the Forest Rangers, an irregular force led by Gustavus von Tempsky that specialized in bush warfare and reconnaissance. Von Tempsky liked the short carbine, which could be loaded while lying down. The waterproofed cartridge was easier to keep dry in the New Zealand bush. Museums in New Zealand hold a small number of these carbines in good condition. During the American Civil War , at least nineteen types of breech-loader were fielded.

The Greene used rotating bolt-action, and was fed from the breech. The Spencer , which used lever-actuated bolt-action, was fed from a seven-round detachable tube magazine. The Henry and Volcanic used rimfire metallic cartridges fed from a tube magazine under the barrel. These held a significant advantage over muzzle-loaders. The improvements in breech-loaders had spelled the end of muzzle-loaders. Anatidae is traditionally divided into subfamilies Anserinae ; the Anatinae consists of tribes Anatini, Aythyini and Tadornini. The higher-order classification below follows a phylogenetic analysis performed by Mikko's Phylogeny Archive and John Boyd's website.

Tambussi et al. Punt gun A punt gun is a type of large shotgun used in the 19th and early 20th centuries for shooting large numbers of waterfowl for commercial harvesting operations. These weapons are characteristically too large for an individual to fire from the shoulder or carry by themselves, but unlike artillery pieces, punt guns are able to be aimed and fired by a single man from a mount. In this case, the mount is a small watercraft. Many early models appear similar to over-sized versions of shoulder weapons of the time with full-length wooden stocks with a normal-sized shoulder stock.

Most variations do away with the full-length stock--especially more modern models--and have mounting hardware fixed to the gun to allow them to be fitted to a pintle. Punt guns were custom-designed and varied but could have bore diameters exceeding 2 inches and fire over a pound of shot at a time. A single shot could kill over 50 waterfowl resting on the water's surface, they were too big to hold and the recoil was so large that they had to be mounted directly on punts used for hunting, hence their name.

Hunters would manoeuvre their punts into line and range of the flock using poles or oars to avoid startling them. The gun was fixed to the punt; the guns were sufficiently powerful, the punts themselves sufficiently small, that firing the gun propelled the punt backwards several inches or more. To improve efficiency, hunters could work in fleets of up to around ten punts. Punt guns are muzzle loaded with a lock similar to muskets or rifles of the day including flintlock and more modern types.

Holland and Holland offered models using breech loading and standardized shotgun shells in both brass and combined paper and brass base in the s via custom order. Double-barreled models existed in the smaller 8-gauge loadings. In most cases, these guns were work-guns with little additional adornment in surviving examples.

Many appearing in modern auctions have signs of being repaired or upgraded in some fashion, such as upgrading a flintlock action to a more modern percussion system or refinishing by rebluing the piece. In the United States , this practice depleted stocks of wild waterfowl and by the s most states had banned the practice. The Lacey Act of banned the transport of wild game across state lines, the practice of market hunting was outlawed by a series of federal laws in Louth was equipped in with a number of flintlock weapons, gifted to them.

Among these guns was a weapon described as being a "nine-foot blunderbuss ", which could be more understood to be a punt gun. In the United Kingdom , a survey showed fewer than 50 active punt guns still in use; the Wildlife and Countryside Act limits punt guns in England and Wales, in Scotland , to a bore diameter of 1.

During the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II , 21 punt gun rounds were fired separately, followed by the guns all being fired simultaneously.

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The film Tremors 4: The Legend Begins featured a punt gun used in combat. This punt gun was custom-built for the film and was 8 feet 4 inches long, weighed 94 pounds, had a 2-inch-diameter bore; the weapon was not of this bore, instead being a large prop shell concealing a 12 gauge shotgun firing triple-loaded black powder blanks, with the barrel sprayed with WD lubricating oil to produce a large smoke cloud on firing. In his novel Chesapeake, author James A.

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Michener details the historical use of punt guns to hunt geese and ducks by the watermen of the Chesapeake Bay. Desmond Bagley's thriller The Tightrope Men features a percussion-fired punt gun. Although set in northern Finland , punt guns were never used in the country. In the novel Outer Dark , by Cormac McCarthy , the use of a four-gauge punt gun for hunting ducks is described.

In the Discworld novel Pyramids, mention is made of a "Puntbow" a combination of this weapon and a crossbow.

Breech-loading swivel gun - Wikipedia

Pivot gun A pivot gun was a type of cannon mounted on a fixed central emplacement which permitted it to be moved through a wide horizontal arc. They were a common weapon aboard ships and in land fortifications for several centuries but became obsolete after the invention of gun turrets. By mounting a cannon on a pivot, a much wider arc of fire could be obtained than was possible with conventional carriage-mounted cannons. Unlike the latter, pivot guns were fixed in one place and could not be moved outside of their horizontal arc. There was no standard size of pivot gun, though they tended to be substantial weapons.

Like other cannons, they could fire either shells or grapeshot , their calibers ranged from a few inches to the giant inch Dahlgren guns used by the United States Navy in the midth century. Pivot guns had a major disadvantage in warfare: they were difficult to protect in battle and were very exposed, as they lay close to the surface of a ship's deck and required an open field of view. In the late 19th century they were replaced by "disappearing guns" and by turrets, which enabled a broad arc of fire while providing the gunners with all-round protection from incoming fire.

Cetbang The Cetbang was a type of cannon produced and used by the Majapahit Empire and other kingdoms in the Nusantaran archipelago. It is called meriam coak which means "hollow cannon", referring to the breech; the cetbang differed from typical European and Middle Eastern cannons, such as the muzzleloader , in that it was made from bronze, was a breech-loading cannon. In the Sekar inscription it states that the main production foundries of cetbang were in Rajakwesi, whereas the black powder was produced in Swatantra Biluluk.

Several examples are exhibited as tourist attractions or in museums. History of Yuan mentioned; the Majapahit Kingdom dominated the Nusantaran archipelago because it possessed the technology to cast and forge bronze on an early mass production basis. The Majapahit pioneered the manufacturing and usage of firearms on a large scale; the Majapahit Empire was one of the last major empires of the region and is considered to be one of the most powerful empires in the history of Indonesia and Southeast Asia.

The use of cannons was widespread in the Majapahit navy, amongst pirates, in neighboring kingdoms in Nusantara. The size of cetbang used by the Majapahit navy varied from one to three meters in length; the three-meter-long cetbang was used by the larger ships in the Majapahit navy.

A famous Majapahit admiral, Mpu Nala , was renowned for his use of cannons. Cetbang can be mounted as fixed or swivel gun , small sized cetbang can be installed on small vessels called Penjajap and Lancaran ; this gun is used as an anti-personnel weapon, not anti-ship.

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  6. In this age to the 17th century, the Nusantaran soldiers fought on a platform called Balai and perform boarding actions. Loaded with scattershot and fired at close range, the cetbang is effective at this type of fighting. Following the decline of the Majapahit, the consequent decline in demand for firearms, many weapon makers and bronze-smiths moved to Sumatra , the Malay peninsula, or the Philippines. This spread the production and usage of the cetbang for protecting trade ships in the Makassar Strait from pirates.

    When the Portuguese first came to Malacca , they found a large colony of Javanese merchants under their own headmen. Majapahit-era cetbang cannons were further improved and used in the Demak Sultanate period during the Demak invasion of Malacca. During this period, the iron, for manufacturing Javanese cannons was imported from Khorasan in northern Persia ; the material was known by Javanese as wesi kurasani. In the period after the Majapahit decline, cannons derived from cetbang in Nusantara were grouped into two types: Lela The lela was smaller in size compared to 16th century European cannons and had intricate patterning, they were used by Malay sultanates in the Malay peninsula and Kalimantan.

    Lela cannons were used on trade warships to ward off pirates. The lela was fired ceremoniously, for instance upon the enthroning of kings, when receiving guests, at engagement ceremonies, to pay respects for a death. Rentaka A rentaka is a swivel gun with smoothbore barrel, is muzzle loaded.

    Rentaka, or lantaka , is a term in Malay for cannons smaller in caliber than lela, with a long barrel and made from iron; this term was created to differentiate these smaller cannons from lela. They were used in the 16th, 17th, 18th centuries, though Filipinos were still using rentaka during the Philippine—American War of — The Metropolitan Museum of Art , New York, USA; this cannon is thought to have been produced in the 14th century, made from bronze with dimensions of Luis de Camoes museum in Macau has a piece of ornamented cetbang.

    Year manufactured is unknown. Talaga Manggung museum, West Java. Numerous cetbang is in good condition due to routine cleaning ritual. Some cetbang can be found in National Museum of Anthropology at Manila , including one medium-sized cannon on fixed mount. Fatahillah Museum has a meriam coak labelled as " Cirebon cannon", in a fixed ornamented mount; the whole mount is cm in length, 76 cm in width, 79 cm in height. Majapahitan cetbang are found at: Dundee beach, Northern Territory , Australia. Researchers have concluded that this bronze swivel cannon is from the 16th century, before James Cook's voyage to Australia; the model is closer to the Makassar , or Balinese cannons.

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    Bissorang village, Selayar islands, Sulawesi Selatan province; this cannon is thought to have originated from the Majapahit era. Local people call Papporo Bissorang. A Mataram-era cetbang can be found at South Sumatera , Indonesia. Lantaka Breech-loading swivel gun Timeline of the. The custom stems from naval tradition, where a warship would fire its cannons harmlessly out to sea, until all ammunition was spent, to show that it was disarmed, signifying the lack of hostile intent; as naval customs evolved, 21 guns came to be fired for heads of state, or in exceptional circumstances for head of government, with the number decreasing with the rank of the recipient of the honor.

    While the gun salute is the most recognized, the number of rounds fired in any given salute will vary depending on the conditions. Circumstances affecting these variations include the particular occasion and, in the case of military and state funerals, the branch of service, rank of the person to whom honors are being rendered; the tradition of saluting can be traced to the Late Middle Ages practice of placing oneself in an unarmed position and, therefore, in the power of those being honored.

    This may be noted in the dropping of the point of the sword, presenting arms, discharging cannon and small arms by firing them, lowering sails, manning the yards , removing the headdress or laying on oars. The gun salute might have originated in the 17th century with the maritime practice of demanding that a defeated enemy expend its ammunition and render itself helpless until reloaded, a time-consuming operation; the gun salute had been established as a naval tradition by the late sixteenth century.

    A man-of-war which visited a foreign port would discharge all its guns to show that its guns were empty. Since the ship would not have enough time to reload before it was within range of the shore batteries, it was demonstrating its friendly intentions by going in with empty guns. Salute by gunfire is an ancient ceremony. For years, the British compelled weaker nations to render the first salute. In the earliest days, seven guns was the recognized British national salute because seven was the standard number of weapons on a vessel. In that day, gunpowder made from sodium nitrate was easier to keep on dry land than at sea.

    Thus those early regulations stated that although a ship would fire only seven guns, the forts ashore would fire three shots to each one shot afloat, hence the number 21; the system of firing an odd number of rounds is said to have been originated by Samuel Pepys , Secretary to the Navy in the Restoration, as a way of economizing on the use of powder, the rule until that time having been that all guns had to be fired.

    Odd numbers were chosen, as numbers indicated a death. With the increase in quality of naval gunpowder by the use of potassium nitrate, honours rendered at sea were increased to the shore salute. There was much confusion because of the varying customs of maritime states, but the British government proposed to the United States a regulation that provided for "salutes to be returned gun for gun"; the British at that time considered the international salute to sovereign states to be 21 guns, the United States adopted the 21 guns and "gun for gun" return on 18 August Occasions that happen to be associated with any national achievements or celebrations.

    Gun salutes are used at special holidays, state funerals, for members of the Canadian Royal Family. A gun salute is given to the Canadian Minister of National Defence when visiting a saluting station, as well as foreign ministers of defence. A gun salute is given on certain occasions for the lieutenant governors of the provinces , such as the Speech from the Throne in a provincial legislature, or for special occasions such as state funerals of important persons. Before they were abolished in by the Trudeau government, royal salutes used to be fired in Ottawa , the provincial capitals, Montreal and Vancouver on the Queen's Accession Day , the Queen's actual birthday, the Queen's Coronation Day , the Birthday of the Duke of Edinburgh , the Birthday of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother ; the gun salute is used in the Republic of China in honor of the President during National Day celebrations.

    After military band trumpeters sound the attention call, the audience is asked to stand up as the President enters. After she or he stands in the podium, the g. Breech-loading swivel gun A breech-loading swivel gun was a particular type of swivel gun and a small breech-loading cannon invented in the 14th century. It was equipped with a swivel for easy rotation and was loaded by inserting a mug-shaped device called a chamber, filled with gunpowder and projectiles, it had a high rate of fire, as several chambers could be prepared in advance and fired in succession and was effective in anti-personnel roles.

    It was used for centuries by many countries of Europe and Africa. Some of them were used until the 20th century. Breech-loading swivel guns were developed early, were used from onward; the guns were loaded with mug-shaped chambers, in which gunpowder and projectile had been filled in advance. The chamber was put in place, blocked with a wedge, fired; as the loading was made in advance and separately, breech-loading swivel guns were quick-firing guns for their time.

    An early description of a breech-loading swivel gun puts the weight of the gun at kilograms, equipped with three chambers for rotations, each 18 kilograms in weight, firing a grams lead shot; the guns had a disadvantage: they leaked and lost power around the chambers, but this was compensated by the high rate of fire as multiple chambers could be prepared in advance. Breech-loading swivel gun could fire either cannonballs against obstacles, or grapeshot against troops.

    During the Middle-Ages, breech-loading swivel guns were developed by the Europeans partly as a cheaper alternative to the expensive bronze cast muzzle-loading cannons, as bronze was many times more expensive than iron. As cast iron was not yet technologically feasible for the Europeans, the only possibility was to use wrought iron bars hammered together and held with hoops like barrels.

    With this method, a one piece design was difficult, a fragmental structure, with separated chamber and barrel was selected.