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For Metaphysique, we have assigned unto it the inquiry of formal and final causes; which assignation, as to the former of them, may seem to be nugatory and void; because of the received and inveterate opinion that the inquisition of man is not competent to find out essential Forms or true differences: of which opinion we will take this hold, that the invention of Forms is of all other parts of knowledge the worthiest to be sought, if it be possible to be found.

In the same manner to inquire the Form of a lion, of an oak, of gold; nay, of water, of air, is a vain pursuit: but to inquire the forms of sense, of voluntary motion, of vegetation, of colours, of gravity and levity, of density, of tenuity, of heat, of cold, and all other natures and [37] qualities, which, like an alphabet, are not many, and of which the essences, upheld by matter, of all creatures do consist; to inquire, I say, the true Forms of these, is that part of metaphysique which we now define of.

Only as to the material and scient causes of them, and not as to the Forms. For example; if the cause of whiteness in snow or froth be inquired, and it be rendered thus, that the subtile intermixture of air and water is:he cause, it is well rendered; but, nevertheless, is this the form of whiteness? But the use of this part of Metaphysique, which I report as deficient, is of the rest the most excellent in two respects: the one, because it is the duty and virtue of all knowledge to abridge the infinity of individual experience, as much as the conception of truth will permit, and to remedy the complaint of VITA BREVIS, ARS LONGA; which is performed by uniting the notions and conceptions of sciences: for knowledges are as pyramids, whereof history is the basis.

So of natural philosophy, the basis is natural history; the stage next the basis is physique; the stage next the vertical point is metaphysique. But these three be the true stages of knowledge, and are to them that are depraved no better than the giant's hills:. So then always that knowledge is worthiest which is charged with least multiplicity; which appeareth to be metaphysique; as that which considereth the simple Forms or differences of things, which are few in number, and the degrees and co-ordinations whereof make all this variety.

The second respect, which valueth and commendeth this part of metaphysique, is that it doth enfranchise the power of man unto the greatest liberty and possibility of works and effects. The ways of sapience are not much liable either to particularity or chance. The second part of metaphysique is the inquiry of final causes, which I am moved to report not as omitted, but as misplaced; and yet if it were but a fault in order, I would not speak of it: for order is matter of illustration, but pertaineth not to the substance of sciences.

But this misplacing hath caused a deficience, or at least a great improficience in the sciences themselves. For the handling of final causes mixed with the rest in physical inquiries, hath intercepted the severe and diligent inquiry of all real and physical causes, and given men the ccasion to stay upon these satisfactory and specious causes, to the great arrest and prejudice of further discovery.

Nay, they are indeed but REMORAE, and hindrances to stay and slug the ship from further sailing; and have brought this to pass, that the search of the physical causes hath been neglected, and passed in silence. Not because those final causes are not true, and worthy to be inquired, being kept within their own province; but because their excursions into the limits of physical causes hath bred a vastness and [38] solitude in that track. For otherwise, keeping their precincts and borders, men are extremely deceived if they think there is an enmity or repugnancy at all between them.

For as in civil actions he is the greater and deeper politique, that can make other men the instruments of his will and ends, and yet never acquaint them with his purpose, so as they shall do it and yet not know what they do, than he that imparteth his meaning to those he employeth; so is the wisdom of God more admirable, when nature intendeth one thing, and Providence draweth forth another, than if He communicated to particular creatures and motions the characters and impressions of His Providence.

And thus much for metaphysique: the latter part whereof I allow as extant, but with it confined to his proper place. The Mathematics are either pure or mixed. To the Pure Mathematics are those sciences belonging which handle quantity determinate, merely severed from any axioms of natural philosophy; and these are two, Geometry and Arithmetic; the one handling quantity continued, and the other dissevered.

In the Mathematics I can report no deficience, except it be that men do not sufficiently understand the excellent use of the Pure Mathematics, in that they do remedy and cure many defects in the wit and faculties intellectual. For if the wit be too dull, they sharpen it; if too wandering, they fix it; if too inherent in the sense, they abstract it. So that as tennis is a game of no use in itself, but of great use in respect it maketh a quick eye and a body ready to put itself into all postures; so in the Mathematics, that use which is collateral and intervenient is no less worthy than that which is principal and intended.

Thus much of Natural Science, or the part of nature speculative. For Natural Prudence, or the part operative of Natural Philosophy, we will divide it into three parts, experimental, philosophical, and magical; which three parts active have a correspondence and analogy with the three parts speculative, natural history, physique, and metaphysique: for many operations have been invented, sometimes by a casual incidence and occurrence, sometimes by a purposed experiment: and of those which have been found by an intentional experiment, some have been found out by varying or extending the same experiments, some by transferring and compounding divers experiments the one into the other, which kind of invention an empiric may manage.

Again, by the knowledge of physical causes there cannot fail to follow many indications and designations of new particulars, if men in their speculation will keep one eye upon use and practice. For as for the Natural Magic whereof now there is mention in books, containing certain credulous and superstitious conceits [39] and observations of sympathies and antipathies, and hidden properties, and some frivolous experiments, strange rather by disguisement than in themselves; it is as far differing in truth of nature from such a knowledge as we require, as the story of King Arthur of Britain, or Hugh of Bordeaux, divers from Caesar's Commentaries in truth of story.

For it is manifest that Caesar did greater things DE VERO than those imaginary heroes were feigned to do; but he did them not in that fabulous manner. Of this kind of learning the fable of Ixion was a figure, who designed to enjoy Juno, the goddess of power; and instead of her had copulation with a cloud, of which mixture were begotten centaurs and chimeras.

And therefore we may note in these sciences which hold so much of imagination and belief, as this degenerate Natural Magic, Alchemy, Astrology, and the like, that in their propositions the description of the mean is ever more monstrous than the pretence or end. To conclude, therefore, the true Natural Magic, which is that great liberty and latitude of operation which dependeth upon the knowledge of Forms, I may report deficient, as the relative thereof is.

Thus have I passed through Natural Philosophy, and the deficiencies thereof; wherein if I have differed from the ancient and received doctrines, and thereby shall move contradiction; for my part, as I affect not to dissent, so I purpose not to contend. If it be truth,. The voice of nature will consent, whether the voice of man do or no. And as Alexander Borgia was wont to say of the expedition of the French for Naples, that they came with chalk in their hands to mark up their lodgings, and not with weapons to fight; so I like better that entry of truth which cometh peaceably, with chalk to mark up those minds which are capable to lodge and harbour it, than that which cometh with pugnacity and contention.

But there remaineth a division of natural philosophy according to the report of the inquiry, and nothing concerning the matter or subject; and that is positive and considerative; when the inquiry reporteth either an assertion or a doubt.

For the first, we see a good example thereof in Aristotle's Problems, which deserved to have had a better continuance; but so nevertheless as there is one point whereof warning is to be given and taken. The registering of doubts hath two excellent uses: the one, that it saveth philosophy from errors and falsehoods; when that which is not fully appearing is not collected into assertion, whereby error might draw error, but reserved in doubt: the other, that the entry of doubts are as so many suckers or sponges to draw use of knowledge; insomuch as that which, if doubts had not preceded, a man should never have advised, but passed it over without note, by the suggestion and solicitation of doubts, is made to be attended and applied.

But both these commodities do scarcely countervail an inconvenience which will intrude itself, if it be not debarred; which is, that when a doubt is once received, men labour rather how to keep it a doubt still, than how to solve it; and accordingly bend their wits. Of this we see the familiar example in lawyers and scholars, both which, if they have once admitted a doubt, it goeth ever after authorised for a doubt. But that use of wit and knowledge is to be allowed, which laboureth to make doubtful things certain, and not those which labour to make certain things doubtful.

To which kalendar of doubts or problems, I advise be annexed another kalendar, as much or more material, which is a calendar of popular errors: I mean chiefly in natural history, such as pass in speech and conceit, and are nevertheless apparently detected and convicted of untruth: that man's knowledge be not weakened nor embased by such dross and vanity. As for the doubts or NON LIQUETS general, or in total, I understand those differences of opinions touching the principles of nature, and the fundamental points of the same, which have caused the diversity of sects, schools, and philosophies, as that of Empedocles, Pythagoras, Democritus, Parmenides, and the rest.

For although Aristotle, as though he had been of the race of the Ottomans, thought he could not reign except the first thing he did he killed all his brethren; yet to those that seek Truth and not magistrality, it cannot but seem a matter of great profit, to see before them the several opinions touching the foundations of nature: not for any exact truth that can be expected in those theories; for as the same phenomena in astronomy are satisfied by the received astronomy of the diurnal motion, and the proper motions of the planets, with their eccentrics and epicycles, and likewise by the theory of Copernicus, who supposed the earth to move and the calculations are indifferently agreeable to both , so the ordinary face and view of experience is many times satisfied by several theories and philosophies; whereas to find the real truth requireth another manner of severity and attention.

For as Aristotle saith, that children at the first will call every woman mother, but afterward they come to distinguish according to truth, so experience, if it be in childhood, will call every philosophy mother, but when it cometh to ripeness, it will discern the true mother. But here I must give warning, that it be done distinctly and severally; the philosophies of every one throughout by themselves; and not by titles packed and fagotted up together, as hath been done by Plutarch.

For it is the harmony of a philosophy in itself which giveth it light and credence; whereas if it be singled and broken, it will seem more foreign and dissonant. For as when I read in Tacitus the actions of Nero, or Claudius, with circumstances of times, inducements, and occasions, I find them not so strange; but when I read them in Suetonius Tranquillus, gathered into titles and bundles, and not in order of time, they seem more monstrous and incredible: so is it of any philosophy reported entire, and dismembered by articles.

Neither do I exclude opinions of latter times to be likewise represented in this kalendar of sects of philosophy, as that of Theophrastus Paracelsus, eloquently reduced into a harmony by the pen of Severinus the Dane: and that of Telesius and his scholar Donius, being as a pastoral philosophy, full of sense, but of no great depth; and that of Fracastorius, who, though he pretended not to make any new philosophy, yet did use the absoluteness of his own sense upon the old; and that of Gilbertus our countryman, who revived, with some alterations and demonstrations, the opinions of Xenophanes: and any other worthy to be admitted.

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This knowledge, as it is the end and term of natural philosophy in the intention of man, so nothwithstanding it is but a portion of natural philosophy in the continent of nature: and generally let this be a rule, that all partitions of knowledges be accepted; rather for lines and veins than for sections and separations; and that the continuance and entireness of knowledge be preserved. For the contrary hereof hath made particular sciences to become barren, shallow, and erroneous, while they have not been nourished and maintained from the common fountain.

So we see Cicero the orator complained of Socrates and his school that he was the first that separated philosophy and rhetoric; whereupon rhetoric became an empty and verbal art. So we may see that the opinion of Copernicus touching the rotation of the earh, which astronomy itself cannot correct, because it is not repugnant to any of the phenomena, yet natural philosophy may correct.

So we see also that the science of medicine, if it be destituted and forsaken by natural philosophy, it is not much better than an empirical practice. So as human philosophy is either simple and particular, or conjugate and civil.

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Humanity particular consisteth of the same parts whereof man consisteth; that is, of knowledges which respect the body, and of knowledges which respect the mind. But before we distribute so far, it is good to constitute. For I do take the consideration in general and at large of human nature to be fit to be emancipate and made a knowledge by itself: not so much in regard of those delightful and elegant discourses which have been made of the dignity of man, of his miseries, of his state and life, and the like adjuncts of his [41] common and undivided nature; but chiefly in regard of the knowledge concerning the sympathies and concordances between the mind and body, which being mixed cannot be properly assigned to the sciences of either.

This knowledge hath two branches: for as all leagues and amities consist of mutual intelligence and mutual offices, so this league of mind and body hath these two parts; how the one discloseth the other, and how the one worketh upon the other; discovery and impression. And although they have of later time been used to be coupled with superstitious and fantastical arts, yet being purged and restored to their true state, they have both of them a solid ground in nature, and a profitable use in life.

The first is physiognomy, which discovereth the disposition of the mind by the lineaments of the body: the second is the exposition of natural dreams, which discovereth the state of the body by the imaginations of the mind. In the former of these I note a deficience. For Aristotle hath very ingeniously and diligently handled the factures of the body, but not the gestures of the body, which are no less comprehensible by art, and of greater use and advantage.

For the lineaments of the body do disclose the disposition and indination of the mind in general; but the motions of the countenance and parts do not only so, but do further disclose the present humour and state of the mind and will. And therefore a number of subtle persons, whose eyes do dwell upon the faces and fashions of men, do well know the advantage of this observation, as being most part of their ability; neither can it be denied, but that it is a great discovery of dissimulations, and a great direction in business.

The latter branch, touching impression, hath not been collected into art, but hath been handled dispersedly; and it hath the same relation or antistrophe that the former hath. For the consideration is double: either how, and how far the humours and sects of the body do alter or work upon the mind; or again, how and how far the passions or apprehensioos of the mind do alter or work upon the body.

The former of these hath been inquired and considered as a part and appendix of medicine, but much more as a part of religion or superstition: for the physician prescribeth cures of the mind in phrensies and melancholy passions; and pretendeth also to exhibit medicines to exhilarate the mind, to confirm the courage, to clarify the wits, to corroborate the memory, and the like: but the scruples and superstitions of diet and other regimen of the body in the sect of the Pythagoreans, in the heresy of the Manicheans, and in the law of Mohomet, do exceed. So likewise the ordinances in the ceremonial law, interdicting the eating of the blood and the fat, distinguishing between beasts clean and unclean for meat, are many and strict.

Nay the faith itself being clear and serene from all clouds of ceremony, yet retaineth the use of fastings, abstinences, and other macerations and humiliations of the body, as things real, and not figurative. The root and life of all of which prescripts is, besides the ceremony, the consideration of that dependency which the affections of the mind are submitted unto upon the state and disposition of the body. And if any man of weak judgment do conceive that this suffering of the mind from the body doth either question the immortality, or derogate from the sovereignty of the soul, he may be taught in easy instances that the infant in the mother's womb is compatible with the mother and yet separable; and the most absolute monarch is sometimes led by his servants and yet without subjection.

For although it hath a manifest power to hurt, it followeth not it hath the same degree of power to help; no more than a man can conclude, that because there be pestilent airs able suddenly to kill a man in health, therefore there should be sovereign airs able suddenly to cure a man in sickness.

But unto all this knowledge DE COMMUNI VINCULO, of the concordances between the mind and the body, that part of inquiry is most necessary, which considereth of the seats and domiciles which the several faculties of the mind do take and occupate in the organs of the body; which knowledge hath been attempted, and is controverted, and deserveth to be much better inquired.

For the opinion of Plato, who placed the understanding in the brain, animosity which he did unfitly call anger, having a greater mixture with pride w the heart, and concupiscence or sensuality in the later, deserveth not to de despised; but much less to be allowed. So then we have constituted, as in our own wish and advice, the inquiry touching human nature entire, as a just portion of knowledge to be handled apart.

The knowledge that concerneth man's body is divided as the good of man's body is divided, unto which it referreth. This subject of man's body is of all other things in nature most susceptible of remedy; but then that remedy is most susceptible of error. For the same subtility of the subject doth cause large possibility and easy failing; and therefore the inquiry ought to be the more exact.

But thus much is evidently true, that of all substances which nature hath produced, man's body is the most extremely compounded. For we see herbs and plants are nourished by earth and water; beasts for the most part by herbs and fruits; man by the mesh of beasts, birds, fishes, herbs, grains, fruits, water, and the manifold alterations, dressings, and preparations of the several bodies, before they come to be his food and aliment. Add hereunto, that beasts have a more simple order of life, and less change of affections to work upon their bodies: whereas man in his mansion, sleep, exercise, passions, hath infinite variations: and it cannot be denied but that the Body of man of all other things is of the most compounded mass.

The Soul on the other side is the simplest of substances, as is well expressed:. Purumque reliquit Aethereum sensum atque aurai simplicis ignem. But to the purpose: this variable composition of man's body hath made it as an instrument easy to distemper; and therefore the poets did well to conjoin Music and Medicine in Apollo, because the office of Medicine is but to tune this curious harp of man's body and to reduce it to harmony.

So then the subject being so variable, hath made the art by consequence more conjectural; and the art being conjectural hath made so much the more place to be left for imposture. For almost all other arts and sciences are judged by acts, or masterpieces, as I may term them, and not by the successes and events.

The lawyer is judged by the virtue of his pleading, and not by the issue of the cause; the master of the ship is judged by the directing his course aright, and not by the fortune of the voyage; but the physician, and perhaps the politique, hath no particular acts demonstrative of his ability, but is judged most by the event; which is ever but as it is taken: for who can tell if a patient die or recover, or if a state be preserved or ruined, whether it be art or accident? And therefore many times the impostor is prized, and the man of virtue taxed. Nay, we see the weakness and credulity of men is such, as they will often prefer a mountebank or witch before a learned physician.

And therefore the poets were clear-sighted in discerning this extreme folly, when they made Aesculapius and Circe brother and sister, both children of the sun, as in the verses,. For in all times, in the opinion of the multitude, witches and old women and impostors have had a competition with physicians. And what followeth? And therefore I cannot much blame physicians, that they use commonly to intend some other art or practice, which they fancy more than their profession.

For you shall have of them antiquaries, poets, humanists, statesmen, merchants, divines, and in every of these better seen than in their profession; and no doubt upon this ground, that they find that mediocrity and excellency in their art maketh no difference in profit or reputation towards their fortune; for the weakness of patients, and sweetness of life, and nature of hope, maketh men depend upon physicians with all their defects. Nothing more variable than the differing sounds of words; yet men have found the way to reduce them to a few simple letters.

So that it is not the insufficiency or incapacity of man's mind, but it is the remote standing or placing thereof, that breedeth these mazes and incomprehensions: for as the sense afar off is full of mistaking, but is exact at hand, so is it of the understanding; the remedy whereof is, not to quicken or strengthen the organ, but to go nearer to the object; and therefore there is no doubt but if the physicians will learn and use the true approaches and avenues of nature, they may assume as much as the poet saith:. Et quoniam variant morbi, variabimus artes; Mille mali species, mille salutis erunt.

Which that they should do, the nobleness of their art doth deserve; well shadowed by the poets, in that they made Aesculapius to be the son of the sun, the one being the fountain of life, the other as the second stream: but infinitely more honoured by the example of our Saviour, who made the body of man the object of His miracles, as the soul was the object of His doctrine. For we read not that ever He vouchsafed to do any miracle about honour or money, except that one for giving tribute to Caesar; but only about the preserving, sustaining, and healing the body of man.

Medicine is a science which hath been, as we [43], more professed than laboured, and yet more laboured than advanced; the labour having been, in my judgment, rather in circle than in progression.

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For I find much iteration, but small addition. It considereth causes of diseases, with the occasions or compulsions; the diseases themselves, with the accidents; and the cares, with the preservations.

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The deficiencies which I think good to note, being a few of many, and those such as are of a more open and manifest nature, I will enumerate, and not place. The first is the discontinuance of the ancient and serious diligence of Hippocrates, which used to set down a narrative of the special cases of his patients, and how they proceeded, and how they were judged by recovery or death. Therefore having an example proper in the father of the art, I shall not need to allege an example foreign, of the wisdom of the lawyers, who are careful to report new cases and decisions for the direction of future judgments.

This continuance of medicinal history I find deficient; which I understand neither to be so infinite as to extend to every common case, nor so reserved as to admit none but wonders: for many things are new in the manner, which are not new in the kind; and if men will intend to observe, they shall find much worthy to observe. In the inquiry which is made by Anatomy, I find much deficience: for they inquire of the parts, and their substances, figures, and collocations; but they inquire not of the diversities of the parts, the secrecies of the passages, and the seats or nestlings of the humoors, nor much of the footsteps and impressions of diseases: the reason of which omission I suppose to be, because the first inquiry may be satisfied in the view of one or a few anatomies: but the latter, being comparative and casual, must arise from the view of many.

And as to the diversity of parts, there is no doubt but the facture or framing of the inward parts is as full of difference as the outward, and in that is the CAUSE CONTINENT of many diseases; which not being observed, they quarrel many times with humours, which are not in fault; the fault beings in the very frame and mechanic of the part, which cannot be removed by medicine alterative, but must be accommodate and palliate by diets and medicines familiar.

As for the passages and pores, it is true which was anciently noted, that the more subtle of them appear not in anatomies, because they are shut and latent in dead bodies, though they be open and manifest in live: which being supposed, though the inhumanity of ANATOMIA VIVORUM was by Celsus justly reproved; yet in regard of the great use of this observation, the inquiry needed not by him so slightly to have been relinquished altogether, or referred to the casual practices of surgery; but mought have been well diverted upon the dissection of beasts alive, which notwithstanding the dissimilitude of their parts, may sufficiently satisfy this inquiry.

And for the humours, they are commonly passed over in anatomies as purgaments; whereas it is most necessary to observe, what cavities, nests, and recptacles the humours do find in the parts, with the differing kind of the humour so lodged and received. And as for the footsteps of diseases and their devastations of the inward parts, imposthumations, exulcerations, discontinuations, putrefactions, consumptions, contractions, extensions, convulsions, dislocations, obstructions, repletions, together with all preternatural substances, as stones, carnosities, excrescences, worms, and the like; they ought to have been exactly observed by multitude of anatomies, and the contribution of men's several experiences, and carefully set down, both historically, according to the appearances, and artificially, with a reference to the diseases and symptoms which resulted from them, in case where the anatomy is of a defunct patient; whereas now, upon opening of bodies, they are passed over slightly and in silence,.

In the inquiry of diseases, they do abandon the cures of many, some as in their nature incurable, and others as past the period of cure; so that Sylla and the Triumvirs never proscribed so many men to die, as they do by their ignorant edicts: whereof numbers do escape with less difficulty than they did in the Roman proscriptions. Therefore I will not doubt to note as a deficience, that they inquire not the perfect cures of many diseases, or extremities of diseases; but pronouncing them incurable, do enact a law of neglect, and exempt ignorance from discredit.

Nay, further, I esteem it the office of a physician not only to restore health, but to mitigate pain and dours; and not only when such mitigation may conduce to recovery, but when. But the physicians contrariwise do make a kind of scruple and religion to stay with the patient after the disease is deplored; whereas, in my judgment, they ought both to inquire the skill and to give the attendances for the facilitating and assuaging of the pains and agonies of death. Therefore here is the deficience which I find, that physicians have not, partly out of their own practice, partly out of the constant probations reported in books, and partly out of the traditions of empirics, set down and delivered over certain experimental medicines for the cure of particular diseases, besides their own conjectural and magistral descriptions.

For as they were the men of the best composition in the state of Rome, which either being consuls inclined to the people, or being tribunes inclined to the senate; so in the matter we now handle, they be the best physicians, which being learned incline to the traditions of experience, or being empirics incline to the methods of learning. In preparation of medicines, I do find strange, especially considering how mineral medicines have been extolled, and that they are safer for the outward than inward parts, that no man hath sought to make an imitation by art of natural baths and medicinable fountains: which nevertheless are confessed to receive their virtues from minerals: and not so only, but discerned and distinguished from what particular mineral they receive tincture, as sulphur, vitriol, steel, or the like; which nature, if it may be reduced to compositions of art, both the variety of them will be increased, and the temper of them will be more commanded.

But lest I grow to be more particular than is agreeable either to my intention or to proportion, I will conclude this part with the note of one deficience more, which seemeth to me of greatest consequence; which is, that the prescripts in use are too compendious to attain their end: for, to my understanding, it is a vain and flattering opinion to think any medicine can be so sovereign or so happy, as that the receipt or use of it can work any great effect upon the body of man. It were a strange speech, which spoken, or spoken oft, should reclaim a man from a vice to which he were by nature subject: it is order, pursuit, sequence, and interchange of application, which is mighty in nature; which although it require more exact knowledge in prescribing, and more precise obedience in observing, yet is recompensed with the magnitude of effects.

And although a man would think, by the daily visitations of the physicians, that there were a pursuance in the cure: yet let a man look into their prescripts and ministrations, and he shall find them but inconstancies and every day's devices, without any settled providence or project.

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Not that every scrupulous or superstitious prescript is effectual, no more than every straight way is the way to heaven; but the truth of the direction must precede severity of observance. For Cosmetic, it hath parts civil, and parts effeminate: for cleanness of body was ever esteemed to proceed from a due reverence to God, to society, and to ourselves. As for artificial decoration, it is well worthy of the deficiencies which it hath; being neither fine enough to deceive, nor to use, nor wholesome to please.

For Athletic, I take the subject of it largely, that is to say, for any point of ability whereunto the body of man may be brought, whether it be of activity, or of patience; whereof activity hath two parts, strength and softness; and patience likewise hath two parts, hardness against wants and extremities, and endurance of paw or torment; whereof we see the practices in tumblers, in savages, and in those that suffer punishment: nay, if there be any other faculty which falls not within any of the former divisions, as in those that dive, that obtain a strange power of containing respiration, and the like, I refer to it this part.

Of these things the practices are known, but the philosophy that concerneth them is not much inquired; the rather, I think, because they are supposed to be obtained, either by an aptness of nature, which cannot be taught, or only by continual custom, which is soon prescribed: which though it be not true, yet I forbear to note any deficiencies: for the Olympian games are down long since, and the mediocrity of these things is for use; as for the excellency of them it serveth for the most part but for mercenary ostentation.

For arts of pleasure sensual, the chief deficience in them is of laws to repress them. For as it hath been well observed, that the arts which flourish in times while virtue is in growth, are military; and while virtue is in state, are liberal; and while virtue is in declination, are voluptuary; so I doubt that this age of the world is somewhat upon the decent of the wheel. With arts voluptuary I couple practices joculary; for the deceiving of the senses is one of the pleasures of the senses. As for games of recreation, I hold them to belong to civil life and education.

And thus much of that particular human philosophy which concerns the body, which is but the tabernacle of the mind. For Human Knowledge which concerns the Mind, it hath two parts; the one that inquireth of the substance or nature of the soul or mind, the other that inquireth of the faculties or functions thereof. This grant will help pay the costs of workshops, gorge walking, coast steering and for the purchase of a summer house.

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This grant will pay for the production of leaflets, consultancy costs and sports and activity coaching costs. The grant will fund hall hire, cricket balls, helmets, bats, 20 hours of coaching fees and kwick cricket sets. The grant will fund training sessions, classes, a music system and CDs. The grant will fund transport costs and pitch hire. This will benefit young people aged years by helping to ease their transition from primary to secondary school. The grant will fund two sessional workers, three teen buddies, a Nintendo Wii and games. The hall is the only community facility within the village and the grant will help pay for repairs to the roof.

The service will be on a restricted service licence for a period of 28 days. This grant will go towards associated costs for the radio license, Ariel fitting and an Apple Mac computer. This grant will pay for professional fees, materials for paths, seating, plants, greenhouse, materials for the sensory and wildlife areas, compost, bark, mulch, trees and seeds. The grant will fund dance instructors costs for an eight week period.

This grant will go towards the costs of parkour sessions, podcast sessions, drama sessions, filmmaking sessions, equipment hire, props and scaffold, costumes, transport costs, studio hire and venue hire.

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The grant is for replacement windows and draft proofing. The grant will be used to pay for coaching costs. This project is based in Ayr, South Ayrshire and focuses on five different sports. This grant will fund coaching, a tag rugby kit, a football coaching kit, a tennis coaching kit, nets and a badminton kit.

The project is based in Ayr, South Ayrshire and will focus on cricket for young people. The grant will fund hall hire, batting gloves, practice balls, cricket bats and helmets. The grant will fund court hire and bibs. This will provide a safe environment for local young people. This grant will pay for monoblocking, landscaping, 4 metal benches, a metal bin, electrical work and painting materials.

G Enterprises Ltd ar 9 Medi, This group seek to hold a Volunteer Award Ceremony to celebrate and recognise the work of the volunteers who helped the charity throughout the year. The group also wishes to re-carpet the public outreach centre. The grant will fund a meal for 40 volunteers, carpet costs and fitting costs.

Just over that ridge was the Saamarin, wide and deep, with only two ferries along its length by which to leave Groyga. The southern one was west of Chikirmo and went to Tyrra, while the northern one was at the mouth of the Mirror Sea and went to Kitarra. She recognized the cut that cradled the road to the southern ferry and felt the excitement of home build within her chest.

They left the horses to creep south on foot.

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Bordas went low and crawled as they neared the cut. She followed suit, dropping to her belly to get to the edge and look down. Below them was the ferry landing they used to enter Groyga. Guards wearing crimson and black milled about. Without effort, she counted twelve guards with six crossbows, two muskets, one long bow, and a barog cat. The muskets were of modern design with serpentine matchlocks, more accurate than harguebuses.

Perhaps they could smuggle us out on a Tyrran ship. There was that pang of guilt again. She turned her attention back to the ferry operators. The Groygan ferry master argued with a slim guard who might be a woman. He gestured to a waiting line of wagons and pack animals. His assistant, an adolescent girl, viewed all the other guards with distrust. Those hoping to take a ferry were mostly Groygan, with a sprinkling of Sareenians.

They made them unload each wagon and open their large packs and crates for examination. It was obvious they looked for concealed persons. Getting across the Saamarin this evening would be difficult for anyone; it seemed impossible for the two Tyrrans watching above. A coach with House Endigala colors and crest came over the rise in the road and everyone below turned to watch as it stopped. A guard climbed down, set up steps, then opened the door.

She sucked in her breath when a familiar small figure with a mop of gray hair appeared. Taalo walked down the line of travelers, looking at each of them in a rather perfunctory manner as they repacked their goods. Taalo marched past the arguing operators and guard. Down the dock a couple paces, he stopped next to the ferry and threw something that looked like a small tied sack. Then he turned back to shore. The ferry master hopped back on the ferry to investigate.

Draius tensed. But he did pick it up as Taalo, without looking back, waved his arm in an imperious gesture and said something. The ferry master burst into fire and, within a breath, the entire ferry had followed. The young woman who assisted the ferry master picked up a long pole and started running, yelling in Groygan. As the flames from this unnaturally fast conflagration rose into the evening sky twice as high as her position, a wave of nausea took her over.

She clenched her teeth and rolled into a ball as Bordas pulled her away from the edge. The shakes and nausea was strong enough to make her heave. In a few moments it passed, but she was so tired she continued lying on the ground. Nevertheless, she crawled back to her former position.

Further out in the river where the strong current swept in waters from the Angim, a string of flotsam had been pulled away from shore and stretched southward. The young assistant crouched on the shore, still crying and mourning the ferry master, whose body was nowhere to be seen. The coach and guards were gone; no indication of Taalo or the House of Endigala remained. Those who had hoped to take a ferry over to Tyrra were slowly heading back to Chikirmo.

Noticing a distinct silence, he looked up. All the lamps were lit and a few people milled about in front of the stairs. Ponteva dismounted quickly, leaving the wet horses to others. He followed Ponteva up the stairs of the palace and through the stone archway.

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Their footsteps echoed on the marble floor, audible over the soft murmurs of people standing in the vestibule.