He made great conquests by land, such as the subduing of the Canaanite cities of Beth-shan and Jerusalem and the conquering of the Philistines, Moabites, Ammonites, and Edomites. Success followed David in every direction, and he was able to extend the territory of Israel from the borders of Egypt to perhaps as far as the Euphrates River.
Assyrian inscriptions tell us that during the time of his reign over Israel, Zobah captured Assyrian territory along the upper Euphrates River that had been part of the latter empire for a hundred years. Then, according to the biblical record, David in turn defeated and subjugated the Aramaean kingdoms. See 2 Sam. This may mean that Israel incorporated within its boundaries lands that had only shortly before belonged to the Assyrian empire.
As well as his conquests by land, David also made his power felt westward across the waters of the Mediterranean. These three tribes were all close neighbors to the Phoenicians, living on the coast to the north of Israel and famed as the greatest mariners of the ancient world. Hiram of Tyre, a good friend of David of Israel, was ruler of the leading kingdom of the Phoenicians.
The two of them appear to have laid the foundation for the joint Phoenician-Israelite commercial enterprises in the Mediterranean that were to thrive in later years.
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Such evidence is found, for instance, at Jerba, a little island off the southern coast of Tunisia. The colony of Jews who presently live there claim their ancestors settled on that island in the great days of David and Solomon. The whereabouts of the stone, unfortunately, is unknown to modern archaeology. If it was David who gave ancient Israel its might, it was Solomon who gave it its glamour.
Sophisticated, learned, and wealthy, he was involved in many activities of the sort that archaeology can illuminate. We could tell of his joint maritime commercial ventures with the Phoenicians in the Red Sea, of his caravan trade with the spice kingdoms of South Arabia, of his middlemen dealings in horses and chariots coming out of Cilicia and Egypt, and of his metal industry in the Arabah south of the Dead Sea. We could also tell of his heavy taxation and forced labor, two policies that eventually brought his empire to an end.
Despite the overlay of many subsequent civilizations, enough of his buildings have now been revealed by excavation to give some clear notions as to what they were like. Of all the ancient cities Solomon built up, perhaps the most fascinating to us is his own capital, Jerusalem, with its archaeological focal point, the site of the Holy Temple.
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Present-day Jerusalem is built over the accumulated remains of many destructions and re-buildings through the ages. Some parts of it, in fact, are estimated to lie over as many as vertical feet of cultural debris. If archaeologists could have a free hand and unlimited budget to excavate, the resulting increase in knowledge would be enormous. But unfortunately, the city is densely populated. One wall often serves two houses, and many of the streets are so narrow that pedestrians have to stand in doorways to permit an automobile to pass. Moreover, it is a holy city to Jews, Christians, and Moslems alike, and fortunate is the archaeologist who is granted one small spot for excavation.
Solomon built the temple on Mount Moriah 2 Chr. This huge compound, which includes about one-fifth of the total area of the present Old Jerusalem, is known as the Haram esh-Sherif, or the Temple Mount. Somewhere beneath it, no doubt under the Dome of the Rock, lie whatever stumps of walls of the temples of Solomon and Herod that may still exist. But no portion of either temple is now known to archaeology, and unfortunately, because of political and religious restrictions, there is no present possibility of excavating in search of them.
However, it is possible to excavate outside the retaining wall of the Temple Mount, and this in fact is what has been happening during the past five years. Benjamin Mazar of the Hebrew University, with his staff of archaeologists, architects, engineers, and volunteer workers, has been working outside the south wall of the sacred enclosure. There may have been more than just one temple in ancient Israel.
If it has not been possible for archaeology to find any part of the Temple in the Holy City itself, this need not be the case in outlying areas. Indeed, some scholars have come to believe that a whole system of temples might have existed outside Jerusalem at key locations near the border. Some authorities believe that such temples functioned until late in the seventh century B. Sometime in the eleventh century B.
During the reign of Solomon a wall was added. For most of the next 2, years the site continued as a small but important fortress, defending the southern border of Judah. It was first built at the time of Solomon as an integral part of the fortress. The temple then continued in use, with some remodeling, down to the seventh century B. Solomon died about B. However, because of grievances held against him, the people refused to sustain Rehoboam.
Rehoboam fled back to Jerusalem, where he continued to reign over Judah and Benjamin only, the empire crumbled, and the golden age of a united Israel came to an end. Up to this time B.
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Between the rebellion in B. Between that rebellion and the Babylonian captivity of the Southern Kingdom in B. In fact, Butser offers a variety of experiences for sixth form students and students from colleges and universities. The site also has workshops for the general public of all ages , which entail hands-on experience in ancient crafts and archaeological methods with qualified instructors. Although such workshops cover similar themes to those that I attended during the s See insert box for further information , financial constraints mean that five-day residential courses are no longer offered.
One or two-day courses are however available, but accommodations are now recommended off-campus. Special events are also available, and can sometimes include food and celebrations with story telling or singing, or perhaps even the chance to try your hand at using ancient weapons. Those who sign up for Butser can also enjoy the unique and evocative setting amongst or within reconstructed Iron Age round houses and a Roman Villa, as well as a variety of crops and animals similar to those found in the Iron Age such as Emmer, Spelt and primitive sheep called Soay.
Charcoal Clamp at Butser Ancient Farm c. This pyramid fire was covered with straw and then soil in order to keep air out, thus preventing combustion of the wood inside. The fire burned slowly for about 36 hours, so that the timber would reduce into carbon to produce charcoal. My early experience at Butser Ancient Farm. Topics included the agricultural use of fire, pottery production and kiln construction and firing, as well as practical work in the production and alloying of metals from base ores using bowl and shaft furnaces.
Despite attending this workshop a very long time ago, it left a positive and everlasting impression, to such an extent that some of the supplementary early technology courses I later attended with my first degree seemed somewhat inferior by comparison. I was fortunate to be able to spend my then five-day residential course working in a relatively small group that was directed by the wonderful Dr. Peter Reynolds. At the start of each day we received appropriate instruction for the topic at hand before embarking onto our lively experiments.
The course was so comprehensive that we not only refined our clay in order to make pottery, but we also constructed a charcoal clamp and Iron Age pottery kiln before firing our own handiwork! The hands-on experimental approach at Butser is offered at all levels pre-college, college and for the adult public and is suitable for all ages and abilities.
Indeed, there is something for everyone at Butser Ancient Farm, no matter the level of interest possessed in the field of archaeology or education. Also, there still time to sign up for many workshops and special events in some sessions may be booked in advance. In July, there is a practical archaeology weekend school, which provides an introduction to archaeological excavation and recording methods.
There is also a workshop to observe the common herbs grown in the Roman home, or a lecture and presentation on Roman cooking where attendees may participate in the preparation of a Roman feast in the villa kitchen. Courses are also available on metal production, pottery making, coracle construction, or cave painting, and much, much more. For more details, please click on the Butser links located at the end of this blog post.
Presenting Archaeology to the Public: Digging for Truths. Altamira Press. Portions of this book may be found in Google Books here. Reynolds, Peter, J. In: P. Stone and P. Planel eds. The Constructed Past: Experimental archaeology, education and the public. Routledge: One World Archaeology Series.
Portions of this article may be found in Google Books here. Reynolds, Peter J. Sansom, E. McManus ed. Archaeological Displays and the Public: museology and interpretation. Institute of Archaeology. University College London, Stone, P. The Excluded Past: Archaeology in Education.
Unwin Hyman: London. The Presented Past: heritage, museums, and education. The Constructed past. Experimental archaeology, education and the public. Wallace, M. The value of special events as interpretive tools. Heritage Interpretation: Butser Ancient Farm Links:. Main Website: www. Labels: ancient technology , Archaeology , archeology , Butser Ancient Farm , experimental archaeology , Iron Age , open air laboratory , Peter Reynolds , Prehistory , public archaeology , teaching archaeology. Like any other profession, archaeology uses specific industry language that can be difficult to understand.
Archaeologists use many technical terms and unique jargon in their work to describe particular periods, techniques and artifacts. Although I initially attempted to explain these terms at the end of some blog posts, I thought it might be more useful to add an archaeology Glossary to this weblog for better ease of reference. The subject of archaeology should be made accessible to everyone and, in my last couple of posts, I emphasized the importance of stimulating public interest in order to promote awareness for our cultural resources and heritage preservation.
For more information, see my previous articles here and here. As an advocate for archaeology education, I feel it is my duty to help the uninitiated reader have a basic understanding of the concepts and terms that are frequently used within the archaeological profession. The purpose of this Glossary therefore is to help the user better understand archaeological terminology, no matter the level of interest possessed. Whether you are a professional in the heritage sector, an educator, a student, an avocational archaeologist, or someone who has just embarked on the subject, you should be able to comprehend this information.
Using the Glossary. Scope of Glossary. Please note that this Glossary does not provide a comprehensive list, as the terminology specific to the discipline of archaeology is seemingly infinite. Further, this Glossary is a work in progress and entries may increase as new blog postings are added. For further information about the terms defined, it is recommended that the reader consult external sources such as those listed in the Bibliography below. Documents and publications of relevant sources used for the formation of this Glossary are included in the Bibliography.
This Glossary is a work in progress and any errors found are my own I do not have an editor for this weblog. Readers are invited to submit new terms, suggest changes or request the addition of abbreviations. You may comment in the box below or send an email to: DianeARees Gmail. I hope you will find this Glossary useful! Sections of this Glossary were assembled with the help of a number of sources. Valued references include:. Lord, J. The Nature and Subsequent Uses of Flint. Volume 1: The Basics of Lithic Technology. John W. Renfrew, C and Bahn, P. Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice.
Rice, P. Mayfield Publishing Company.
Labels: anthropology , Antiquities , archaeology definition , archaeology education , archaeology glossary , archaeology terms , archeology , artifact , Conservation , Culture , Heritage , public archaeology. In my previous post, I discussed the many reasons why archaeology education ought to be applied to the lay public, particularly to students who are still enrolled in pre-college education.
Not only has it proved to be an effective tool for combating the rising problem of damage to archaeological remains, but it can also diminish stereotypical beliefs about people who existed in the past, and extinguish misconceptions about what the responsibilities of an archaeologist are. Additionally, it is an excellent way for students to experience the thrill of discovery, while also addressing many educational concerns in the classroom.
For more details, see my earlier post here. Indeed, this past decade has experienced many uses of public interpretation and outreach models and an increase in the collaborative effort between professional practitioners in public interpretation and educational institutions such as schools, museums, historians and other cultural resource specialists.
Experts now understand that community-based partnerships enable better strategies to be devised for translating archaeological information to the public, and thus a more effective means for preserving our cultural heritage for the long-term. Located in extreme southwestern Colorado, Crow Canyon has been forthcoming in providing innovative public outreach efforts, and offer opportunities for the public to take part in organized and supervised archaeological investigation.
The Center was formed in as an independent c 3 not-for-profit organization and is dedicated to archaeological research and education. The high quality research at the center enables other associated professionals to communicate ethical responsibilities such as the need to preserve and protect archaeological remains to both the academic community and the general public.
In fact, the center provides reputable programs specifically designed for the public of all ages and is worth a mention here. Why was Crow Canyon established? In the s, he and his wife, Joanne, established an experiential school that provided outdoor education activities, including som e archaeology programs. At that time, Stuart Struever, professor of Anthropology at Northwestern University, had founded the Center for American Archaeology CAA in Illinois, and in he became actively involved in the establishment of Crow Canyon as a campus for the CAA, particularly due to the fact that its surrounding area was so rich in archaeological remains.
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The Archaeology Live! This draws April David Jennings, the Chief However this multi perspective model of Executive Officer of YAT remarked on the public archaeology certainly has its critics. Schadla-Hall points to the involvement of the Mother academic understanding, to more science MacDonald, , Another example of this might be the Miles Tae Dundee exhibition in Dundee, which public will support archaeological work more was focussed on the heritage specifically of often and at a greater level.
Instead, a greater! The aim of future endeavours in public archaeology, the project was to get those most likely to visit framed within a wider academic debate over it to feel a less impersonal connection to the the future of the discipline. Bibliography Similar approaches can be seen in the work Ascherson, N. The paper has finished with what is Inst. Not only are the public invited to participate with the excavation King, Thomas F. McGimsey, in work, but the level of archaeological rigour American Antiquity, 41 2 , has remained impressively high.
The wider Schadla-Hall, T.
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Related Papers. Do you even know what public archaeology is? Trends, theory, practice, ethics. Evaluating community archaeology in the UK. By Faye Sayer. By Katsuyuki Okamura. By Rachel A. Download pdf.